Table 2

Mean scale scores and association between health literacy scales and different long-term conditions

Understand health information well enough to know what to doActively engage with healthcare providers
Mean scale score (95% CI)Unadjusted βAdjusted β†Mean scale score (95% CI)Unadjusted βAdjusted β†
Diabetes (ref no diabetes)2.92 (2.89 to 2.96)−0.18*−0.09*3.00 (2.96 to 3.04)−0.08*−0.04
CVD (ref no CVD)2.83 (2.79 to 2.87)−0.28*−0.16*2.89 (2.84 to 2.93)−0.20*−0.15*
COPD (ref no COPD)2.89 (2.85 to 2.92)−0.22*−0.09*2.91 (2.87 to 2.95)−0.17*−0.10*
Musculoskeletal disorders (ref no musculoskeletal disorders)2.99 (2.98 to 3.01)−0.14*−0.07*2.99 (2.97 to 3.00)−0.12*−0.10*
Cancer (ref no cancer)3.02 (2.97 to 3.06)−0.08*−0.06*3.04 (3.00 to 3.09)−0.030.04
Mental disorders (ref no mental disorders)2.87 (2.84 to 2.91)−0.24*−0.17*2.79 (2.75 to 2.83)−0.31*−0.23*
  • *p<0.05.

  • †Coefficients of linear regression adjusted for age, sex, educational level, ethnic background, cohabitation status and other comorbidities.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease.