Table 1

Summary of included studies

ThemeSubthemeNumber of studiesTotal sample size*Results summaryQuality summary
Musculoskeletal conditionsHallux valgus42380P 3H 1
M 2
L 0
N 1H 0
M 0
L 1
 Osteoarthritis21665P 0H 0
M 0
L 0
N 2H 0
M 1
L 1
 Pain5750P 3H 0
M 2
L 1
N 2H 0
M 0
L 2
InjuryFirst-party injury89880P 7H 5
M 2
L 0
N 1H 0
M 1
L 0
 Second-party injury165P 1H 1
M 0
L 0
N 0H 0
M 0
L 0
  • *Some studies measured the sample size in terms of number of incidents rather than number of participants.

  • H, high quality (low risk of bias); L, low quality (high risk of bias); M, moderate quality (moderate risk of bias); N, negative result; P, positive result.