Table 4

Risk of all types of cancer in the calcium channel blocker (CCB) cohort compared to the non-CCB antihypertensive (AHT) drugs cohort, by cumulative duration of drug exposure

Cumulative duration of drug exposure*
Less than 5 years5–10 yearsMore than 10 years
CCB cohortAHT cohortCCB cohortAHT cohortCCB cohortAHT cohort
Cancer rates (per 1000 person-years)25.913.810.538.754.593.08
Number of cancers10 449691734412400705437
Number of person-years403 881502 788326 639274 173153 656141 840
Crude HR (95% CI)1.85 (1.79 to 1.90)1.00 (reference)1.33 (1.27 to 1.40)1.00 (reference)1.43 (1.27 to 1.61)1.00 (reference)
Adjusted HR (95% CI)0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.93 to 1.04)1.00 (reference)1.11 (0.98 to 1.27)1.00 (reference)
  • *Duration of CCB exposure estimated using dates of first and last utilisation within the period at risk; same rule applied to the AHT cohort.

  • †p<0.001. HR obtained from multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses including age at index date, gender, smoking status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, diagnoses of diabetes, hypertension, arrhythmia, angina or heart failure, and use of statins or aspirin.