Table 3

Results of meta-analyses

Outcome (units), studyCases, mean (SD)Controls, mean (SD)Effect sizeI2 (%)Egger's regression
BaselineFollow-upNBaselineFollow-upNRaw mean difference95% CIIntercept95% CI
Fast walking speed (ms)0.060.02 to 0.1161−3.27−69.0 to 62.4
 Allen et al111.47 (0.38)1.61 (0.35)211.54 (0.35)1.48 (0.43)240.2−0.001 to 0.40
 Paul et al200.02 (0.16)*60.01 (0.19)*90.01−0.18 to 0.2
 Shulman et al220.84 (0.05)0.84 (0.05)220.85 (0.05)0.79 (0.05)220.060.03 to 0.09
Comfortable walking speed (ms)0.030.01 to 0.0515−1.34−13.8 to 11.2
 Allen et al111.07 (0.27)1.09 (0.26)211.04 (0.25)1.06 (0.32)240.0−0.15 to 0.15
 Combs et al141.06 (1.08)1.10 (1.10)111.15 (0.72)1.22 (0.64)110.03−0.65 to 0.71
 Paul et al200.06 (0.16)*60.05 (0.12)*90.01−0.13 to 0.15
 Shulman et al220.72 (0.05)0.71 (0.05)220.73 (0.04)0.69 (0.04)220.030.01 to 0.05
Timed Up and Go Test (s)−0.71−1.47 to 0.060−5.28−61.1 to 50.5
 Combs et al148.05 (15.12)7.12 (14.62)117.64 (7.39)7.12 (5.47)11−0.41−9.04 to 8.22
 Paul et al20−1.3 (2.7)*6−0.1 (2.0)*9−1.2−3.57 to 1.17
 Schilling et al215.8 (0.50)5.7 (0.80)97.5 (1.18)6.75 (1.21)9−0.65−0.47 to 0.06
6 min walk (m)16.677.86 to 25.4847−6.14−42.8 to 30.5
 Combs et al14405.0 (549.1)457.0 (669.7)11484.4 (301.2)478.7 (183.9)1157.7−300.21 to 415.6
 Schilling et al21537.7 (88.1)586.9 (51.0)9468.8 (83.3)493.9 (64.3)924.1−39.97 to 88.17
 Shulman et al22§32.6 (14.6)*2249.1 (15.5)*2216.57.86 to 25.48
Maximal oxygen consumption (mL/kg/min)−1.6−1.93 to −1.278526.18−103.5 to 155.9
 DiFrancisco-Donoghue et al1713.3 (2.7)11.6 (2.4)913.0 (2.8)12.8 (2.9)9−1.5−3.74 to 0.74
 DiFrancisco-Donoghue et al17**11.5 (2.1)10.0 (2.0)913.9 (2.8)14.6 (2.6)9−2.2−4.19 to −0.22
 Shulman et al22−0.052 (0.4) *221.53 (0.7)*22−1.6−1.93 to −1.25
  • *Change from baseline for each group.

  • †Converted from seconds (50 feet distance) to ms.

  • ‡Converted from seconds (10 m distance) to ms.

  • §Converted from feet to metres.

  • ¶Exercise versus controls.

  • **Exercise+vitamins versus vitamins.