Table 1

Baseline characteristics of decedents by quintile of GP visits in the 18–7 months before death

 Quintile of GP visits
Total decedent cohort01–23–56–1011+
N14 8193282 (22.2)2139 (14.4)3130 (21.1)3246 (21.9)3022 (20.4)
Age at death (years)
 45–54371 (2.5)63 (1.9)56 (2.6)90 (2.9)85 (2.6)77 (2.5)
 55–641363 (9.2)261 (8.0)198 (9.3)311 (9.9)307 (9.5)286 (9.5)
 65–742771 (18.7)594 (18.1)398 (18.6)580 (18.5)614 (18.9)585 (19.4)
 75–845135 (34.7)1031 (31.4)762 (35.6)1119 (35.8)1151 (35.5)1072 (35.5)
 85+5179 (34.9)1333 (40.6)725 (33.9)1030 (32.9)1089 (33.5)1002 (33.2)
 p Value ref<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
Sex
 Male8875 (59.9)1922 (58.6)1299 (60.7)1877 (60.0)1961 (60.4)1816 (60.1)
 Female5944 (40.1)1360 (41.4)840 (39.3)1253 (40.0)1285 (39.6)1206 (39.9)
 p Value ref0.110.250.130.22
Language
 English13 290 (89.7)2946 (89.8)1917 (89.6)2809 (89.7)2904 (89.5)2714 (89.8)
 Other1527 (10.3)335 (10.2)221 (10.3)321 (10.3)342 (10.5)308 (10.2)
 Missing2 (0.0)1 (0.0)1 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 p Value ref0.880.950.670.98
Education
 Did not complete high school6418 (43.3)1416 (43.1)932 (43.6)1360 (43.5)1420 (43.7)1290 (42.7)
 High school/apprenticeship5817 (39.3)1278 (38.9)847 (39.6)1236 (39.5)1267 (39.0)1189 (39.3)
 University or higher1997 (13.5)465 (14.2)278 (13.0)416 (13.3)429 (13.2)409 (13.5)
 Missing587 (4.0)123 (3.7)82 (3.8)118 (3.8)130 (4.0)134 (4.4)
 p Value ref0.470.590.550.77
Remoteness
 Major cities7345 (49.6)1650 (50.3)1062 (49.6)1555 (49.7)1615 (49.8)1463 (48.4)
 Inner regional4780 (32.3)1044 (31.8)710 (33.2)1000 (31.9)1051 (32.4)975 (32.3)
 Outer regional 2433 (16.4)541 (16.5)343 (16.0)516 (16.5)508 (15.7)525 (17.4)
 Remote/very remote257 (1.7)46 (1.4)24 (1.1)57 (1.8)72 (2.2)58 (1.9)
 Missing4 (0.0)1 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.1)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)
 p Value ref0.610.600.070.21
Private health insurance
 Private extras5277 (35.6)1204 (36.7)765 (35.8)1093 (34.9)1158 (35.7)1057 (35.0)
 Private no extras2093 (14.1)455 (13.9)319 (14.9)434 (13.9)448 (13.8)437 (14.5)
 Healthcare card5092 (34.4)1087 (33.1)713 (33.3)1092 (34.9)1134 (34.9)1066 (35.3)
 None2357 (15.9)536 (16.3)342 (16.0)511 (16.3)506 (15.6)462 (15.3)
 p Value ref0.700.410.460.18
Household annual income ($A)
 <10 0001553 (10.5)313 (9.5)226 (10.6)331 (10.6)345 (10.6)338 (11.2)
 10 000–29 9995612 (37.9)1236 (37.7)827 (38.7)1176 (37.6)1241 (38.2)1132 (37.5)
 30 000–49 9991620 (10.9)400 (12.2)217 (10.1)344 (11.0)351 (10.8)308 (10.2)
 50 000–69 999728 (4.9)162 (4.9)98 (4.6)171 (5.5)137 (4.2)160 (5.3)
 70 000 or more978 (6.6)210 (6.4)153 (7.2)196 (6.3)215 (6.6)204 (6.8)
 Prefer not to answer2705 (18.3)610 (18.6)392 (18.3)574 (18.3)589 (18.1)540 (17.9)
 Missing1623 (11.0)351 (10.7)226 (10.6)338 (10.8)368 (11.3)340 (11.3)
 p Value ref0.160.460.240.06
Self-reported health status
 Excellent701 (4.7)164 (5.0)76 (3.6)157 (5.0)162 (5.0)142 (4.7)
 Very good2856 (19.3)687 (20.9)429 (20.1)570 (18.2)649 (20.0)521 (17.2)
 Good5243 (35.4)1252 (38.1)768 (35.9)1095 (35.0)1060 (32.7)1068 (35.3)
 Fair3879 (26.2)787 (24.0)557 (26.0)853 (27.3)881 (27.1)801 (26.5)
 Poor1183 (8.0)211 (6.4)159 (7.4)257 (8.2)274 (8.4)282 (9.3)
 Missing957 (6.5)181 (5.5)150 (7.0)198 (6.3)220 (6.8)208 (6.9)
 p Value ref0.02<0.001<0.001<0.001
Number of comorbidities
 None2857 (19.3)660 (20.1)400 (18.7)599 (19.1)623 (19.2)575 (19.0)
 14853 (32.7)1097 (33.4)700 (32.7)1044 (33.4)1062 (32.7)950 (31.4)
 24122 (27.8)878 (26.8)595 (27.8)842 (26.9)918 (28.3)889 (29.4)
 3 or more2987 (20.2)647 (19.7)444 (20.8)645 (20.6)643 (19.8)608 (20.1)
 p Value ref0.430.700.510.07
Functional limitation
 No limitation1305 (8.8)322 (9.8)201 (9.4)273 (8.7)285 (8.8)224 (7.4)
 Minor limitation942 (6.4)217 (6.6)135 (6.3)184 (5.9)221 (6.8)185 (6.1)
 Mild limitation1748 (11.8)410 (12.5)259 (12.1)388 (12.4)378 (11.6)313 (10.4)
 Moderate limitation2890 (19.5)672 (20.5)414 (19.4)573 (18.3)625 (19.3)606 (20.1)
 Severe limitation5867 (39.6)1201 (36.6)814 (38.1)1285 (41.1)1289 (39.7)1278 (42.3)
 Missing2067 (13.9)460 (14.0)316 (14.8)427 (13.6)448 (13.8)416 (13.8)
 p Value ref0.730.0040.08<0.001
Psychological distress
 Low distress10 553 (71.2)2392 (72.9)1535 (71.8)2190 (70.0)2299 (70.8)2137 (70.7)
 Moderate distress2099 (14.2)442 (13.5)284 (13.3)467 (14.9)455 (14.0)451 (14.9)
 High distress848 (5.7)172 (5.2)118 (5.5)183 (5.8)203 (6.3)172 (5.7)
 Very high distress386 (2.6)87 (2.7)63 (2.9)85 (2.7)74 (2.3)77 (2.5)
 Missing933 (6.3)189 (5.8)139 (6.5)205 (6.5)215 (6.6)185 (6.1)
 p Value ref0.860.150.170.26
  • Numbers in parenthesis represent the proportion of decedent in the specified quintile. p Values were estimated excluding missing records.

  • GP, general practitioner. Bold values indicate a statistically significant difference at p<0.05.