Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of included studies

Study/year/countryCases/controls, N (% men)Intensity and durationResponse to treatment
BaselineFollow-upAge *Case treatmentControl treatment
Allen
2010
Australia
24 (54)/24 (54)21/2466/68Progressive lower limb strengthening and balance exercises (a monthly exercise class, remaining exercise sessions at home). Standardised falls prevention advice (booklet)40–60 min 3 times per week for 6 monthsUsual care. Standardised falls prevention advice (booklet)Insignificant difference
Bloomer
2008
USA
8 (50)/8 (50)6/761/57Three sets of 5–8 repetitions: leg press, leg curl and calf press. Increased weight by 5–10% when 8 repetitions were completed for all 3 setsTwo times per week for 2 monthsUsual activityPositive
Bridgewater
1997
Australia
13 (69)/13 (54)13/1367/6615 min warm-up. Trunk muscles (back extensors and abdominals): 10 repetitions of 7 s isometric contractions with 7 s rest. Progression: as individual ability and improvement allowedTwo times per week for 3 monthsUsual activity and ‘interest talks’ on health issues Once every 3 weeksPositive
Combs
2013
USA
17 (65)/14 (71)11/1167/6815 min warm-up. Boxing circuit, endurance. Progression: self-progressed by completing more repetitions during each training bout as intensely as tolerated24–36×90 min for 3 monthsStrengthening, endurance and balance exercisesPositive
Corcos
2013
USA
24 (58)/24 (58)20/1859/59Strength: 1–3 sets of 8×6–9 s repetitions; speed: 2 sets of 12 repetitions. Progression: 5% depending on one repetition maximumTwo times per week for 24 monthsStretches, balance exercises, breathing and non-progressive strengtheningPositive
Cruise
2011
Australia
15 (60)/13 (69)14/1059/615 min warm-up (walking, stationary cycling and stretching), 6 resistance exercises. Progression: 5–10% based on one repetition maximum. Aerobic component 25–30 min60 min 2 times per week for 3 monthsUsual activitiesPositive
DiFrancisco-Donoghue
2012
USA
10 (77)/9 (33) †
12 (56)/10 (56)‡
9/9†
9 9‡
68/68†
67/69‡
20 min aerobic exercise, weight training 2 sets of 8–15 repetitions with 30 s rest between. Progression: weight increased by 5 lbs when 15 repetitions per set were achieved40 min 2 times per week for 1½ monthsUsual activities.
Vitamins: folic acid, B12 and B6
Insignificant difference
Hass
2012
USA
9 (77)/9 (77)9/964/675 min warm-up, 2 sets of 12–20 repetitions of six exercises, 5 min break between sets. Progression based on one repetition maximumTwo times per week for 2½ monthsUsual activitiesPositive
Hirsch
2003
USA
6/96/7§
6/9¶
71/76Balance+resistance training. Resistance training: 15 min lower extremities, 1 set of 12 repetitions, and 2 min rest between exercises. Progression based on 4 repetitions maximumThree times per week for 2½ monthsBalance trainingPositive
Paul
2014
Australia
20 (65)/20 (60)18/18§ 19/19**68/65Three sets of 8 repetitions for 4 muscle groups. Progression: increase by 5% when 10 repetitions achieved45 min 2 times per week for 3 monthsLow intensity exercises for the trunk, leg flexors, leg extensors and hip abductorsPositive
Schilling
2010
USA
9/98 (63)/7 (57)61/57Warm-up, 3 sets of 5–8 repetitions of the leg press, leg curl and calf press. Progression: when 8 repetitions for all 3 sets were completed, the weight was increased by 5–10%Two times per week for 2 monthsStandard carePositive
Shulman
2013
USA
28††/26‡‡22 (82)††/22(73)‡‡65††/66‡‡Resistance exercises: 2 sets of 10 repetitions (leg press, leg extension and leg curl). Progression: weight increased as toleratedThree times per week for 3 months50 min of lower intensity treadmillPositive on muscle strength
  • *Years in means.

  • †Training versus controls.

  • ‡Training and vitamins versus vitamins.

  • §Strength.

  • ¶Balance.

  • **Mobility and balance.

  • ††Stretching and Resistance Training.

  • ‡‡Lower-Intensity treadmill training (higher-intensity treadmill excluded as progressive training of different type).