Table 4

Odds of ≥1 h/week of utilitarian walking (OR, 95% CI) in univariate, partially adjusted and fully adjusted models across quartiles of neighbourhood walkability (n=2949)*,†,‡

 Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Lower boundUpper boundLower boundUpper boundLower boundUpper boundPseudo R2
GIS-derived walkability
 Model 11.190.971.471.641.332.022.191.762.730.0201
 Model 21.160.941.421.581.281.962.131.712.660.0325
 Model 31.140.921.401.531.231.901.971.572.480.0358
 Model 41.130.911.391.411.141.761.661.312.110.0475
Walk Score
 Model 11.140.931.401.871.512.322.562.063.190.0318
 Model 21.110.901.371.851.492.302.502.013.120.0443
 Model 31.110.901.371.791.442.242.371.882.980.0460
 Model 41.090.881.351.701.362.122.001.572.540.0555
  • *Quartile 1 (least walkable) served as the reference; GIS-derived walkability index quartiles: <−1.5, ≥1.5, <−0.3, ≥−0.3, <1.1, ≥1.1; Walk Score quartiles: <22, ≥22, <48, ≥48, <68, ≥68.

  • †Model 1: unadjusted; model 2: adjusted for age, sex and body mass index; model 3: adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, married/common law, income, children, immigrant and mood disorder; model 4: adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, married/common law, income, children, immigrant, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season.

  • ‡Rural location was not included in the final multivariate models as it was correlated with both GIS-derived walkability and the Walk Score.

  • GIS, Geographic Information System.