Table 4

Generalised estimating equations to estimate ORs of the risk of offspring with parental history of smoking for having high waist circumference (WC; above action level 1 or above action level 2), high body mass index (BMI; ≥25 or ≥30 kg/m2)

SonsDaughters
n (%)OR95% CIp Valuen (%)OR95% CIp Value
Model 1: risk of WC above action level 1
 Paternal smoking history*829 (80.9)1.210.84 to 1.750.3071035 (80.7)1.020.74 to 1.420.894
 Maternal smoking history*555 (54.1)1.501.13 to 2.010.006694 (54.1)1.421.10 to 1.840.007
 At least one parent with smoking history892 (87.0)1.761.15 to 2.700.0101123 (87.5)1.420.98 to 2.000.061
Model 2: risk of WC above action level 1 (additional birthweight variable)
 Paternal smoking history*640 (80.7)1.200.80 to 1.810.378848 (80.2)1.130.79 to 1.620.510
 Maternal smoking history*428 (54.0)1.561.13 to 2.160.008580 (54.8)1.401.06 to 1.850.018
 At least one parent with smoking history684 (86.3)1.971.21 to 3.200.007927 (87.6)1.661.10 to 2.510.017
 High birth weight (highest tertile)†248 (31.3)1.210.82 to 1.780.347359 (33.9)1.060.77 to 1.460.720
Model 1: risk of WC above action level 2
 Paternal smoking history*829 (80.9)1.090.70 to 1.700.6971035 (80.7)1.100.73 to 1.660.642
 Maternal smoking history*555 (54.1)1.671.14 to 2.450.009694 (54.1)1.381.02 to 1.870.036
 At least one parent with smoking history892 (87.0)1.540.94 to 2.520.0861123 (87.5)1.520.91 to 2.530.107
Model 2: risk of WC above action level 2 (additional birthweight variable)
 Paternal smoking history*640 (80.7)1.110.66 to 1.850.703848 (80.2)1.040.70 to 1.330.821
 Maternal smoking history*428 (54.0)1.530.98 to 2.380.060580 (54.8)1.300.93 to 1.810.306
 At least one parent with smoking history684 (86.3)1.350.78 to 2.340.288927 (87.6)1.480.85 to 2.580.166
 High birth weight (highest tertile)†248 (31.3)1.981.23 to 3.200.005359 (33.9)1.360.92 to 2.000.121
Model 1: risk of BMI above 25 kg/m2
 Paternal smoking history*829 (80.9)1.521.05 to 2.200.0251035 (80.7)1.220.87 to 1.700.244
 Maternal smoking history*555 (54.1)1.461.09 to 1.970.013694 (54.1)1.130.88 to 1.460.335
 At least one parent with smoking history892 (87.0)2.011.33 to 3.030.0011123 (87.5)1.430.98 to 2.100.067
Model 2: risk of BMI above 25 kg/m2 (additional birthweight variable)
 Paternal smoking history*640 (80.7)1.511.01 to 2.270.0461035 (80.7)1.290.90 to 1.850.172
 Maternal smoking history*428 (54.0)1.601.15 to 2.240.006694 (54.1)1.010.77 to 1.330.932
 At least one parent with smoking history684 (86.3)2.211.39 to 3.520.0011123 (87.5)1.390.92 to 2.090.118
 High birth weight (highest tertile)†248 (31.3)1.280.86 to 1.910.226359 (33.9)1.130.82 to 1.560.447
Model 1: risk of BMI above 30 kg/m2
 Paternal smoking history*829 (80.9)1.540.93 to 2.530.0911035 (80.7)1.140.73 to 1.770.577
 Maternal smoking history*555 (54.1)1.791.23 to 2.620.003694 (54.1)1.250.89 to 1.740.193
 At least one parent with smoking history892 (87.0)1.951.10 to 3.440.0221123 (87.5)1.450.85 to 2.490.176
Model 2: risk of BMI above 30 kg/m2
 Paternal smoking history*829 (80.9)1.660.93 to 3.000.0891035 (80.7)1.080.66 to 1.770.761
 Maternal smoking history*555 (54.1)1.711.11 to 2.620.014694 (54.1)1.180.81 to 1.710.383
 At least one parent with smoking history892 (87.0)1.820.95 to 3.480.0721123 (87.5)1.490.80 to 2.760.205
 High birth weight (highest tertile)†248 (31.3)1.640.98 to 2.720.058359 (33.9)1.250.83 to 1.890.295
Model 1: risk of metabolic syndrome‡
 Paternal smoking history*646 (80.6)1.120.73 to 1.730.669910 (81.3)0.870.56 to 1.360.544
 Maternal smoking history*433 (54.1)1.681.17 to 2.400.005602 (53.8)1.180.81 to 1.710.387
 At least one parent with smoking history692 (86.4)1.721.01 to 2.940.047979 (87.4)0.920.56 to 1.510.727
Model 2: risk of metabolic syndrome (additional birthweight variable)‡
 Paternal smoking history*496 (80.1)1.000.65 to 1.540.995746 (80.6)1.000.63 to 1.600.981
 Maternal smoking history*330 (53.3)1.831.28 to 2.640.001505 (54.5)1.140.77 to 1.690.506
 At least one parent with smoking history528 (85.3)1.811.07 to 3.070.027808 (87.3)1.240.70 to 2.190.456
 High birth weight (highest tertile)†196 (31.7)1.300.88 to 1.930.189322 (34.8)0.970.64 to 1.600.884
  • Data were adjusted for offspring and parental age, social class, parental BMI, and offspring smoking history (model 1) and additional birthweight adjustment (model 2). *Variables were entered in regression simultaneously.

  • †Reference group: second birthweight tertile.

  • ‡There were 1921 cases with complete data for constructing metabolic syndrome.