Table 2

Study patient characteristics, including those screened or diagnosed with VAP

Overall sample (n=169)Screened using VAP checklist items 1–4Diagnosed by an intensivist
CharacteristicVAP (n=29)No VAP (n=140)p ValueVAP (n=30)No VAP (n=139)p Value
Age, mean±SD (years)59.71±15.9859.78±17.0359.71±15.830.98*58.60±18.6359.95±15.720.67*
Gender, n (%) (male)110 (65)22 (76)88 (63)0.05†21 (70)89 (64)0.53†
BMI, mean±SD28.79±7.2828.95±7.2128.75±7.320.90*28.28±7.0128.90±7.360.69*
APACHE II score, mean±SD20.61±7.0818.76±6.3021.01±7.190.09*18.63±4.6021.04±7.450.09*
Charlson, median (IQR)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)0.23‡1 (0–2)1 (0–2)0.23‡
Smoking, median (IQR), (years)0 (0–10)0 (0–6)0 (0–13.5)0.55‡0 (0–10)0 (0–12)0.71‡
Smoking, dichotomised, n (%)8 (27)45 (28)0.62†9 (30)44 (31)0.86†
ED admission, n (%)38 (22)8 (27)30 (21)0.47§,¶7 (23)31 (22)0.71§,¶
Readmission ICU, n (%)15 (9)4 (14)11 (8)0.31§1 (3)14 (10)0.47§
Mechanical ventilation, median (IQR) (chart days)7 (5–12)11 (7–16)7 (5–11)0.0029.50 (7–14)7 (5–12)0.04
ICU LOS, median (IQR) (days)11 (8–19)15 (10–22)10 (7–17)0.0113 (10–20)10 (7–17)0.03
Hospital LOS, median (IQR) (days)30 (16–43)29 (20–49)24 (14–40.5)0.1126 (17–48)25 (15–41)0.92
Alive at 30 days, n (%)131 (77)24 (83)107 (75)0.46†21 (70)110 (79)0.27†
Non-operative diagnosis, n (%)108 (64)22 (76)86 (61)0.13†18 (60)90 (65)0.62†
 Cardiac, n (%)25 (23)5 (17.5)20 (14)0.418 (27)17 (12)0.05
 Respiratory, n (%)28 (26)4 (14)24 (17)0.451 (3)27 (19)0.01
 Gastrointestinal, n (%)9 (8)09 (6.5)0.172 (7)7 (5)0.50
 Neurological, n (%)10 (9)2 (7)8 (6)0.543 (10)7 (5)0.50
 Sepsis, n (%)14 (13)4 (14)10 (7)0.20014 (10)0.60
 Trauma, n (%)13 (12)5 (17.5)8 (6)0.054 (13)9 (7)0.18
 Other, n (%)9 (8)2 (7)7 (5)0.4709 (7)0.15
Operative diagnosis, n (%)61 (36)7 (24)54 (39)0.13†12 (40)49 (35)0.62†
 Cardiac, n (%)29 (47)4 (14)25 (18)0.416 (20)23 (17)0.41
 Respiratory, n (%)00000
 Gastrointestinal, n (%)10 (16)1 (3)9 (6.5)0.46010 (7)0.13
 Neurological, n (%)10 (16)1 (3)9 (6.5)0.464 (13)6 (4)0.08
 Trauma, n (%)10 (16)1 (3)9 (6.5)0.462 (7)8 (6)0.56
 Other, n (%)2 (5)02 (1)0.6802 (1)0.68
  • *Independent t test (unequal variances) two tailed.

  • †χ2 Test.

  • ‡Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test.

  • §Fishers exact test (one-sided).

  • ¶Analysis included comparisons for all locations of patients prior to ICU admission.

  • APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (on admission); BMI, body mass index (height and weight available for n=145); ED, emergency department; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of stay; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.