Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of participants of the five cohorts

Type of older participantsNU-AGE (n=236)DRIE (n=172)Fortes (n=97)Sjöstrand ED (n=36)Pfortmueller (n=54)
Free-living, healthyResidential care, frailerAdmitted to medical care /emergency departmentAwaiting emergency room treatmentDecompensated liver cirrhosis
Age, years (all ≥65 years)70.1 (4.1)86.0 (7.9)78.6 (7.5)83.8 (5.9)69.3 (4.3)
Sex, n (%) female147 (62%)111 (65%)50 (52%)20 (56%)13 (24%)
Weight, kg74.3 (13.8)69.5 (17.3)ND68.4 (13.4)ND
Height, cm166.0 (8.8)163.6 (10.6)ND169.7 (9.1)ND
BMI, kg/m226.9 (4.1)25.9 (5.6)ND24.0 (4.4)ND
MMSE28.4 (1.5)22.2 (5.6)NDNDND
Functional status*IADL
6.8 (1.5)
BI
67.3 (26.4)
NDNDND
Serum osmolality, mOsm/kg296.0 (7.0)291.9 (9.5)286.7 (14.4)299.7 (7.0)290.9 (8.6)
Osmolality, n (%) >300 mOsm/kg53 (22%)33 (19%)8 (8%)16 (44%)6 (11%)
Sodium, mmol/L140.7 (2.2)137.4 (3.9)136.6 (5.2)142.6 (2.3)135.6 (4.4)
Sodium, n (%) >145 mmol/L1 (<1%)1 (1%)2 (2%)3 (8%)1 (2%)
Potassium, mmol/L4.3 (0.3)4.2 (0.4)4.4 (0.6)3.9 (0.4)4.3 (0.9)
Potassium, n (%) >5.0 mmol/L2 (1%)6 (3%)10 (10%)0 (0%)9 (17%)
Urea, mmol/L5.4 (1.2)7.0 (2.7)8.8 (6.1)8.2 (2.8)9.7 (6.2)
Creatinine, µmol/L79.6 (15.7)90.2 (36.3)118.9 (76.4)84.0 (28.8)123.0 (91.6)
Glucose, mmol/L5.2 (0.7)6.9 (3.2)7.1 (2.6)5.7 (1.2)6.7 (4.0)
Glucose, n (%) >7.8 mmol/L2 (1%)34 (20%)25 (26%)1 (3%)19 (35%)
Diabetes diagnosed6 (3%)32 (19%)19 (20%)ND27 (50%)
eGFR, mL/min†75.0 (10.9)63.7 (19.1)57.2 (19.3)71.5 (17.3)63.9 (24.4)
Poor renal function, n (%) eGFR 30 to <6023 (10%)65 (38%)36 (37%)13 (36%)14 (26%)
eGFR <30, n (%)0 (0%)7 (4%)11 (11%)0 (0%)6 (11%)
Haemoglobin, g/dL13.9 (1.0) n=23112.4 (1.5)12.4 (2.2)13.0 (1.5)ND
  • All numbers are mean (SD) except where otherwise labelled.

  • *IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) and BI (Barthel Index) assess functional status. IADL scores from 0 to 8 and 8 is fully functioning, while the BI scores from 0 to 100, with 100 being fully functioning.

  • †For creatinine in µmol/L the following equation was used, and truncated at 90 (top measure)30:Embedded Image

  • BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated-glomerular filtration rate; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; ND, no data (not measured).