Table 2

Sleep in late pregnancy by ethnicity

Mother identifies as Māori (N=194)Mother identifies as non-Māori (N=439)p Value for comparison
Poor sleep quality
 3 or more nights poor sleep163 (84.0%)364 (82.9%)0.73
 GSDS total167 (86.1%)380 (86.6%)0.87
 GSDS quality subscale165 (85.1%)366 (83.4%)0.60
 GSDS daytime sleepiness subscale112 (57.7%)202 (46.0%)0.01
Sleep disturbances on three or more nights
 Going to the bathroom177 (91.2%)396 (90.2%)0.68
 Pain in back/neck/joints147 (75.8%)269 (61.3%)<0.001
 Dreams83 (42.8%)139 (31.7%)0.01
 Nightmares21 (10.8%)29 (6.6%)0.07
 Heartburn72 (37.1%)162 (36.9%)0.77
 Nasal congestion50 (25.8%)118 (26.9%)0.77
 Leg cramps62 (32.0%)108 (24.6%)0.05
 Contractions31 (16.0%)42 (9.6%)0.02
 Feeling too hot or too cold112 (57.7%)204 (46.5%)0.01
 Thinking or worrying about things95 (49.0%)191 (43.5%)0.20
 Baby moving about127 (65.5%)241 (54.9%)0.01
 Other children60 (30.9%)101 (23.0%)0.04
 Just cannot get comfortable149 (76.8%)271 (61.7%)<0.001
 Just cannot get to sleep103 (53.1%)166 (37.8%)<0.001
 Disturbed by partner50 (25.8%)98 (22.3%)0.34
Sleep duration
 Short sleep (≤6 h)57 (29.4%)118 (26.9%)
 Average sleep (>6 to <9 h)90 (46.4%)247 (56.3%)
 Long sleep (≥9 h)47 (24.2%)74 (16.9%)0.04
Change in sleep duration between pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy*
 Increased28 (14.4%)62 (14.1%)
 No change83 (42.8%)210 (47.8%)
 Decreased83 (42.8%)167 (38.0%)0.47
Sleep disorders
 Snoring47 (24.2%)104 (23.7%)0.88
 Chronic snoring21 (10.8%)29 (6.6%)0.07
 Pregnancy-onset snoring22 (11.3%)82 (18.7%)0.02
 Breathing pauses11 (5.7%)13 (3.0%)0.10
 Pregnancy-onset breathing pauses8 (4.1%)12 (2.7%)0.36
 Leg twitching36 (18.6%)32 (7.3%)<0.001
 Pregnancy-onset leg twitching9 (4.6%)26 (5.9%)0.52
 Restless legs28 (14.4%)81 (18.5%)0.22
Excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS≥10)60 (30.9%)96 (21.9%)0.02
  • Values are number (percent); p values are obtained from χ2 tests.

  • *Defined as movement between the defined categories of short sleep (≤6 h), average sleep (>6 and <9 h) and long sleep (≥9 h).

  • ESS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale; GSDS, General Sleep Disturbance Scale.