Table 1

Professional interventions as per Cochrane EPOC review group (adapted from2)

ADistribution of educational materialsDistribution of published or printed recommendations for clinical care, including clinical practice guidelines, audiovisual materials and electronic publications. The materials may have been delivered personally or through mass mailings
BEducational meetingsHealthcare providers who have participated in conferences, lectures, workshops or traineeships
CLocal consensus processesInclusion of participating providers in discussion to ensure that they agreed that the chosen clinical problem was important and the approach to managing the problem was appropriate
DEducational outreach visitsUse of a trained person who met with providers in their practice settings to give information with the intent of changing the provider's practice. The information given may have included feedback on the performance of the provider(s)
ELocal opinion leadersUse of providers nominated by their colleagues as ‘educationally influential’. The investigators must have explicitly stated that their colleagues identified the opinion leaders
FPatient-mediated interventionsNew clinical information (not previously available) collected directly from patients and given to the provider, for example, depression scores from an instrument
GAudit and feedbackAny summary of clinical performance of healthcare over a specified period of time. The summary may also have included recommendations for clinical action. The information may have been obtained from medical records, databases or patient observations
HRemindersThe patient or provider encounters specific information designed or intended to prompt a health professional to recall information or perform or avoid some action to aid individual patient care. Computer-aided decision support is included
IMarketingUse of personal interviewing, group discussion (‘focus groups’) or a survey of targeted providers to identify barriers to change and subsequent design of an intervention that addresses identified barriers
JMass mediaEither (1) varied use of communication that reached great numbers of people including television, radio, newspapers, posters, leaflets and booklets, alone or in conjunction with other interventions, or (2) targeted at the population level
  • EPOC, Effective Practice and Organisation of Care.