Table 2

Multinomial and nested logit models of waterpipe smoking preference, and willingness to pay estimates (in USD)

Multinomial logit
coefficient (SE)
Willingness to pay
estimate (CI)
Nested logit
coefficient (SE)
Flavour
 Double apple0.9423 (0.0369)***4.63 (4.11 to 5.23)1.3365 (0.4532)**
 Blue mist0.5024 (0.0381)***3.79 (3.31 to 4.29)1.1312 (0.3857)**
 Pirate's cave0.0496 (0.0404)2.93 (2.49, 3.39)0.9041 (0.3106)**
 Tobacco (Non-flavoured)−1.4940 (0.0606)***ReferenceReference
Nicotine content−0.1837 (0.0640)**
 0.0%0.3116 (0.0304)***Reference
 0.05%−0.0119 (0.0316)***−0.82 (−1.02 to −0.63)
 0.5%−0.1927 (0.0317)***−0.96 (−1.18 to −0.74)
Price−0.3768 (0.1230)**
 $50.4631 (0.0302)***
 $100.1715 (0.0309)***
 $20−0.6346 (0.0345)***
Opt out choice
 Health warning exposure0.2803 (0.1252)*
 Age at waterpipe initiation0.1046 (0.0222)***
 Non-cigarette smoker1.1758 (0.2279)***
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • CI: 95% Krinsky-Robb CIs.