Table 2

The associations between natural environment and depression

Depression: clinical caseDepression: subthreshold case
Model 1
OR (95% CI)
Model 2
OR (95% CI)
Model 3
OR (95% CI)
Model 1
OR (95% CI)
Model 2
OR (95% CI)
Model 3
OR (95% CI)
Individual-level factors
Age1.03 (1.01 to 1.06)1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)
Sex
 Men1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
 Women2.12 (1.55 to 2.91)2.11 (1.52 to 2.93)2.12 (1.53 to 2.94)1.71 (1.37 to 2.13)1.74 (1.38 to 2.19)1.74 (1.38 to 2.19)
Education (years)
 >91.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
 ≤91.47 (1.10 to 1.98)1.51 (1.08 to 2.10)1.47 (1.05 to 2.06)1.25 (1.01 to 1.55)1.26 (0.98 to 1.61)1.16 (0.90 to 1.49)
Social class
 Non-manual1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
 Manual1.20 (0.91 to 1.59)1.02 (0.74 to 1.39)1.00 (0.73 to 1.38)1.17 (0.95 to 1.44)1.06 (0.83 to 1.35)0.99 (0.78 to 1.27)
Number of chronic illness
 None1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
 11.08 (0.74 to 1.58)1.02 (0.69 to 1.51)1.02 (0.69 to 1.51)1.20 (0.91 to 1.60)1.18 (0.88 to 1.58)1.15 (0.85 to 1.55)
 2+1.51 (1.07 to 2.14)1.40 (0.97 to 2.01)1.40 (0.97 to 2.02)1.69 (1.30 to 2.21)1.67 (1.26 to 2.21)1.63 (1.23 to 2.16)
Area deprivation
 Q1 (Least)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
 Q20.95 (0.60 to 1.51)0.79 (0.49 to 1.27)1.64 (1.14 to 2.35)1.52 (1.05 to 2.20)
 Q31.14 (0.73 to 1.78)0.94 (0.59 to 1.49)1.62 (1.13 to 2.32)1.49 (1.03 to 2.17)
 Q4 (Most)1.44 (0.95 to 2.20)1.14 (0.70 to 1.84)2.20 (1.56 to 3.10)1.98 (1.34 to 2.93)
Natural environment
 Q1 (Lowest)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)1.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
 Q21.04 (0.69 to 1.55)0.99 (0.66 to 1.51)1.01 (0.66 to 1.52)0.95 (0.69 to 1.31)0.91 (0.65 to 1.26)0.97 (0.70 to 1.34)
 Q30.92 (0.61 to 1.39)0.97 (0.64 to 1.47)1.03 (0.67 to 1.59)0.97 (0.71 to 1.34)0.98 (0.71 to 1.35)1.13 (0.81 to 1.58)
 Q4 (Highest)0.67 (0.42 to 1.07)0.72 (0.45 to 1.16)0.80 (0.48 to 1.33)0.64 (0.45 to 0.91)0.66 (0.46 to 0.95)0.84 (0.57 to 1.23)
p Value for trend0.110.240.520.040.080.68
  • Model 1: unadjusted; model 2: adjusted for all individual-level factors; model 3: adjusted for all individual-level factors and area deprivation.