Table 1

Groups of disabling chronic conditions (DCC) and included conditions

DCC groupNumber of included studiesNumber of affected childrenConditions included in the group
All-cause disabling chronic conditions29 studies1 2 8–3076226* affected childrenCombined categories of all chronic conditions with associated activity limitation, including physical, sensory and psychological disabilities or long-term health problems
Psychological disorders72 studies11 16 18 31–9472277* affected childrenAll-cause psychological disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, emotional disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, internalising and externalising behaviour problems, obsessive compulsive disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome
Intellectual disability25studies,52 60 69 71 84 95–113633235* affected childrenChildren with IQ <70 or equivalent measure—7 of these studies report mild and moderate/severe disability
Sensory impairments12 studies11 51 71 84 88 112 114–11911994* affected childrenHearing impairment and visual impairment
Cerebral palsy8 studies84 120–12616084 affected childrenNon-acquired and acquired cerebral palsy
Epilepsy9 studies11 31 104 112 127–13113562* affected childrenRecurrent epileptic seizures excluding febrile seizures
Asthma13 studies11 51 132–1416407 affected childrenAsthma with activity limitation and/or asthma requiring hospital admission
Congenital anomalies identifiable at birth14 studies110 142–15341956* affected childrenNeural tube defects compatible with life, cleft lip and palate, other congenital and chromosomal abnormalities
Miscellaneous conditions (insufficient numbers for meta-analysis)4 studies85 104 112 1548954 childrenCrohn's disease, Down's syndrome, diabetes mellitus, heart disease
  • *Indicates incomplete totals as some studies reported no data on number of participants.