Table 2

Strength improvement through resistance training

±SE (%)
leg extensorleg
Group HA89±1534±10112±31100±21140±3233±7.947±11129±29
p Value (ANOVA)<0.00010.0010.0004<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Group MA74±2248±3079±5861±3274±3216±155.6±1143±16
p Value (ANOVA)0.0020.090.190.0450.0330.280.590.0007
  • Strength improvement R12/R0−1 in per cent measured in maximum training tests of all muscles trained after 12 months with respect to initial strength. Groups characterise the degree of training participation, HA: 80–100%, MA: 60–80%. The significance level p is also given. The exercises consisted of pressing one's legs against a big ball at the end of the chair/bed (leg extensor); positioning a big ball under the knees and squeezing it with one's heels (leg curl); hip bridge (back); pressing with a ball (adductor); crunches (abdomen); biceps curl (only non-shunt arm, patients were motivated to train the shunt arm between dialysis sessions); triceps extensions (non-shunt arm) with weights; abductors pulling with a theraband.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; HA, high adherence; MA moderate adherence.