Table 1

Demographic characteristics, tobacco related and other factors of 547 smokers in two groups of different education levels

Demographic characteristicsTotal (N=547)FC (N=149)FCF (N=398)p Value
Low education level (N=56)High education level (N=93)Low education level (N=166)High education level (N=232)
Age (years), Mean (SD)41.0 (11.1)42.1 (11.5)40.5 (9.2)42.0 (12.7)40.2 (10.5)0.34
Age (years) number, N (%)
 <31100 (18.3)9 (16.1)13 (14.0)30 (18.1)48 (20.7)0.15
 31–40174 (31.8)16 (28.6)32 (34.4)48 (28.9)78 (33.6)
 41–50168 (30.7)18 (32.1)36 (38.7)45 (27.1)69 (29.7)
 >50105 (19.2)13 (23.2)12 (12.9)43 (25.9)37 (15.9)
Marital status
 Married479 (87.6)51 (91.1)83 (89.2)144 (86.7)201 (86.6)0.76
 Single or divorced68 (12.4)5 (8.9)10 (10.8)22 (13.3)31 (13.4)
Occupation (%)
 Currently employed436 (79.7)37 (66.1)81 (87.1)100 (60.2)218 (94.0)<0.001
 Student/unemployed/retired/others111 (20.3)19 (33.9)12 (12.9)66 (39.8)14 (6.0)
Family income per month (¥, US$1=¥6)
 <3000203 (37.1)37 (66.1)21 (22.6)91 (54.8)54 (23.3)<0.001
 3000∼6000150 (27.4)7 (12.5)30 (32.3)38 (22.9)75 (32.3)
 >6000194 (35.5)12 (21.4)42 (45.2)37 (22.3)103 (44.4)
Tobacco-related factors
Cigarettes smoked on average daily (cigarette/day)
 ≥20337 (61.6)37 (66.1)59 (63.4)104 (62.7)137 (59.1)0.60
 10–19157 (28.7)13 (23.2)27 (29.0)42 (25.3)75 (32.3)
 <1053 (9.7)6 (10.7)7 (7.5)20 (12.0)20 (8.6)
Smoking duration (years)
 <20234 (42.8)18 (32.1)41 (44.1)61 (36.7)114 (49.1)0.03
 ≥20313 (57.2)38 (67.9)52 (55.9)105 (63.3)118 (50.9)
Prior attempts to quit smoking
 0135 (24.7)10 (17.9)23 (24.7)44 (26.5)58 (25.0)0.63
 ≥1412 (75.3)46 (82.1)70 (75.3)122 (73.5)174 (75.0)
Fagerström test score
 Severe (6–10)246 (45.0)30 (53.6)35 (37.6)83 (50.0)98 (42.2)0.26
 Moderate (4–5)133 (24.3)13 (23.2)29 (31.2)35 (21.1)56 (24.1)
 Low (0–3)168 (30.7)13 (23.2)29 (31.2)48 (28.9)78 (33.6)
Stage of quitting smoking
 Contemplation/precontemplation134 (24.5)10 (17.9)33 (35.5)37 (22.3)54 (23.3)0.03
 Preparation197 (36.0)16 (28.6)35 (37.6)58 (34.9)88 (37.9)
 Action216 (39.5)30 (53.6)25 (26.9)71 (42.8)90 (38.8)
Perceived health status at the first visit
 Fair/bad/very bad363 (66.4)38 (67.9)55 (59.1)113 (68.1)157 (67.7)0.45
 Very good/good184 (33.6)18 (32.1)38 (40.9)53 (31.9)75 (32.3)
Expenditure on cigarettes per day, ¥
 <20261 (47.7)31 (55.4)45 (48.4)79 (47.6)106 (45.7)0.64
 ≥20286 (52.3)25 (44.6)48 (51.6)87 (52.4)126 (54.3)
Medical advice to quit187 (34.2)19 (33.9)29 (31.2)53 (31.9)86 (37.1)0.66
Had doctor diagnosed tobacco related diseases290 (53.0)28 (50.0)47 (50.5)95 (57.2)120 (51.7)0.62
Current drinkers380 (69.5)34 (60.7)72 (77.4)116 (69.9)158 (68.1)0.17
Exhaled CO level at first visit, Mean (SD)11.8 (7.8)10.8 (6.5)12.5 (7.6)11.0 (7.7)12.3 (8.1)0.23
Perceived importance of quitting, Mean (SD)85.8 (17.3)86.5 (15.6)85.9 (16.2)86.3 (18.0)85.3 (17.6)0.94
Perceived difficulty in quitting, Mean (SD)72.6 (23.2)78.8 (18.5)77.4 (21.3)69.6 (24.7)71.4 (23.5)0.01
Perceived confidence in quitting, Mean (SD)67.6 (23.9)73.6 (22.5)66.4 (22.0)69.9 (25.2)65.0 (23.7)0.05
  • FC, Face-to-face counselling only; FCF, Face-to-face counselling plus follow-up booster.