Table 1

Participant inclusion and exclusion criteria

Study partInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Part A—Intervention development
 Patients
  • Established diagnosis of epilepsy (≥1 year)

  • All epilepsy syndromes and all types of focal and generalised seizures

  • Currently being prescribed antiepileptic medication

  • Age ≥16 years (no upper age limit)

  • Have visited ED in the past 2 years for epilepsy (as reported by the patient)

  • Live in the North West area of England

  • Able to provide informed consent and participate in intervention in English

  • Acute symptomatic seizures related to acute neurological illness or substance misuse

  • Severe current psychiatric disorder (eg, acute psychosis) or life-threatening medical illness

Carers
  • A significant other to the patient (eg, family member, friend) whom the patient identifies as providing informal support

  • Age ≥16 years (no upper age limit)

  • Live in the North West area of England

  • Able to provide informed consent and participate in intervention in English

  • Severe current psychiatric disorder or life-threatening medical illness

Part B—Pilot RCT
 Patients
  • Established diagnosis of epilepsy (≥1 year)

  • All epilepsy syndromes and all types of focal and generalised seizures

  • Currently being prescribed antiepileptic medication

  • Age ≥16 years (no upper age limit)

  • Visited an ED for epilepsy on ≥2 occasions within the previous 12 months (as reported by patient)

  • Live within 25 miles of any of the ED recruitment sites

  • Able to provide informed consent, participate in intervention and independently complete questionnaires in English

  • Actual or suspected psychogenic non-epileptic seizures alone or in combination with epilepsy

  • Acute symptomatic seizures related to acute neurological illness or substance misuse

  • Severe current psychiatric disorders (eg, acute psychosis) or life-threatening medical illness

  • Enrolled in other epilepsy related non-pharmacological treatment studies

Carers
  • A significant other to the patient (eg, family member, friend) whom the patient identifies as providing informal support

  • Age ≥16 years (no upper age limit)

  • Lives in the North West area of England

  • Severe current psychiatric disorders or life-threatening medical illness

  • Enrolled in other epilepsy related non-pharmacological treatment studies

  • While efforts will be made to maximise the recruitment of patient-carer dyads, patient participants will be permitted to take part without a carer. Carers will not, however, be able to take part in this part of the project without a patient partner having at least consented to take part in the study. Up to 90% of PWE can identify an informal carer.58

  • ED, emergency department PWE, people with chronic epilepsy; RCT, randomised controlled trial.