Table 3

Mean measured depth of each point compared by BMI and gender

UnderweightIdeal body weightOverweightObesity
VariableMean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)p Value*
GB21 (cm)
 All3.7 (3.5 to 3.9)5.1 (4.9 to 5.3)6.1 (5.9 to 6.3)7.0 (6.8 to 7.3)<0.001
 Male4.0 (3.7 to 4.3)5.3 (5.1 to 5.6)6.4 (6.0 to 6.7)7.1 (6.8 to 7.5)<0.001
 Female3.4 (3.1 to 3.6)4.9 (4.7 to 5.2)5.8 (5.6 to 6.0)6.9 (6.5 to 7.2)<0.001
 p Value†0.0010.0320.0120.264
SI14 (cm)
 All3.8 (3.6 to 4.1)5.0 (4.8 to 5.3)5.9 (5.7 to 6.1)6.4 (6.1 to 6.8)<0.001‡
 Male4.5 (4.1 to 4.9)5.7 (5.4 to 6.0)6.3 (6.0 to 6.7)7.2 (6.5 to 8.0)<0.001‡
 Female3.2 (3.0 to 3.4)4.6 (4.3 to 4.8)5.7 (5.4 to 5.9)6.1 (5.7 to 6.5)<0.001‡
 p Value†<0.001<0.0010.0020.003
SI15 (cm)
 All7.3 (7.0 to 7.5)8.5 (8.3 to 8.7)9.0 (8.8 to 9.3)10.1 (9.8 to 10.4)<0.001‡
 Male7.7 (7.3 to 8.1)9.2 (8.9 to 9.4)9.6 (9.2 to 9.9)10.7 (10.2 to 11.1)<0.001‡
 Female6.7 (6.6 to 6.9)7.9 (7.6 to 8.1)8.5 (8.3 to 8.7)9.5 (9.2 to 9.9)<0.001‡
 p Value†<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
GV15 (cm)
 All3.9 (3.7 to 4.0)4.7 (4.6 to 4.9)5.3 (5.1 to 5.4)5.5 (5.3 to 5.6)<0.001‡
 Male4.3 (4.1 to 4.5)5.2 (5.0 to 5.4)5.5 (5.3 to 5.7)5.7 (5.5 to 6.0)<0.001
 Female3.5 (3.3 to 3.6)4.2 (4.0 to 4.4)5.0 (4.8 to 5.2)5.2 (5.0 to 5.4)<0.001‡
 p Value†<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
GV16 (cm)
 All3.6 (3.4 to 3.7)4.6 (4.4 to 4.7)4.8 (4.7 to 5.0)5.2 (5.1 to 5.4)<0.001‡
 Male4.0 (3.8 to 4.1)4.9 (4.7 to 5.2)5.1 (5.0 to 5.3)5.5 (5.3 to 5.6)<0.001‡
 Female3.1 (2.9 to 3.3)4.2 (4.0 to 4.4)4.6 (4.4 to 4.7)5.0 (4.8 to 5.2)<0.001‡
 p Value†<0.001<0.001<0.0010.001
GB20 (cm)
 All4.3 (4.1 to 4.5)4.8 (4.6 to 5.0)5.1 (5.0 to 5.2)5.6 (5.4 to 5.7)<0.001‡
 Male4.8 (4.6 to 5.0)5.2 (4.9 to 5.4)5.3 (5.1 to 5.5)5.9 (5.7 to 6.1)<0.001‡
 Female3.7 (3.6 to 3.9)4.5 (4.3 to 4.6)4.9 (4.8 to 5.1)5.3 (5.1 to 5.5)<0.001‡
 p Value†<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
ST9 (cm)
 All1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)1.6 (1.5 to 1.7)1.7 (1.7 to 1.8)1.9 (1.8 to 2.0)<0.001‡
 Male1.3 (1.1 to 1.4)1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)1.9 (1.8 to 2.0)1.9 (1.8 to 2.0)<0.001‡
 Female1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)1.6 (1.5 to 1.7)1.9 (1.8 to 2.0)<0.001‡
 p Value†0.1570.001<0.0010.996
SI16 (cm)
 All1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)2.0 (1.9 to 2.1)2.1 (2.0 to 2.2)<0.001
 Male1.6 (1.5 to 1.8)1.8 (1.7 to 1.9)2.0 (1.8 to 2.1)2.1 (2.0 to 2.3)<0.001
 Female1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)1.6 (1.5 to 1.8)1.9 (1.8 to 2.1)2.0 (1.9 to 2.2)<0.001
 p Value†0.0180.1250.5680.401
SI17 (cm)
 All1.8 (1.6 to 1.9)2.3 (2.2 to 2.3)2.6 (2.5 to 2.7)2.9 (2.8 to 3.0)<0.001‡
 Male1.9 (1.7 to 2.1)2.2 (2.1 to 2.4)2.5 (2.4 to 2.7)2.9 (2.6 to 3.1)<0.001‡
 Female1.6 (1.5 to 1.7)2.3 (2.1 to 2.4)2.7 (2.5 to 2.8)2.9 (2.7 to 3.1)<0.001‡
 p Value†0.0130.9490.1530.560
TE16 (cm)
 All2.3 (2.2 to 2.5)2.9 (2.7 to 3.0)3.3 (3.1 to 3.4)3.8 (3.6 to 4.0)<0.001‡
 Male2.6 (2.3 to 2.8)3.2 (2.9 to 3.4)3.4 (3.3 to 3.6)3.7 (3.4 to 4.0)<0.001‡
 Female2.0 (1.9 to 2.2)2.6 (2.4 to 2.8)3.1 (2.9 to 3.3)3.8 (3.5 to 4.1)<0.001‡
 p Value†<0.001<0.0010.0280.595
LI18 (cm)
 All1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)1.2 (1.2 to 1.3)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)1.5 (1.4 to 1.5)<0.001‡
 Male1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)1.3 (1.2 to 1.3)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)<0.001
 Female1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)1.2 (1.1 to 1.2)1.4 (1.3 to 1.4)1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)<0.001‡
 p Value†0.0630.0550.6910.170
  • *ANOVA test or Brown-Forsythe test: determining the differences among different BMI groups.

  • †Student's t test: determining the differences between the male and female.

  • ‡p Values were performed by Brown-Forsythe test.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index.