Table 1

Type of adverse events of acupuncture

TraumaPenetrating the stomach cavity,6 epidural haematoma,2 7–9 pneumothorax,2 10 11 3 12–17 medulla spinalis injury,16 puncture of liver,3 puncture of heart,3 18 cardiac tamponade,2 15 19 myositis ossificans,20 vascular injury,3 21 popliteal arteriovenous fistula,22 spinal cord trauma,2 17 23 intracranial hemorrhage,24 lumbar epidural haematoma,25 transverse myelopathy,26 haemothorax, compartment syndrome arterial injury, deep vein thrombosis, popliteal artery occlusion, pseudoaneurysm, subarachnoid haemorrhage and medulla trauma, etc.2
InfectionEndocarditis,16 multiple epidural abscesses,27 cervical epidural abscess,28 29 paraplaegia caused by spinal infection,30 septic arthritis,2 31 cervical subdural empyema,32 hepatitis and contact dermatitis,14 17 skin infection,5 chronic inflammatory granuloma,33 bacterial meningitis,25
Miscellaneous eventsHypotension, nausea, vomiting and fainting,3 death,3 16 34 severe asthma,16 tiredness, drowsiness, pain, severe headache or migraine, severe sleeplessness, diarrhoea, etc.5