Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

StudyPopulationVideo groupControl groupVideoControl­­
Participants, nMean age (years)Participants, nMean age (years)
Epstein et al20Patients with progressive pancreatic or hepatobiliary cancer from outpatient oncology clinics in New York City306526663 min video providing a narrative description of CPR, and likelihood of its success in patients with advanced cancer. Images include simulated CPR, endotracheal intubation, and a sedated patient being mechanically ventilated in an ICUVerbal description of CPR by research staff (same script as video arm)
Volandes et al19Patients with advanced cancer from outpatient clinics at 4 oncology centers in Boston, New York City and Nashville70638062Verbal description by research staff of CPR, and likelihood of its success in patients with advanced cancer, followed by a 3 min video. The video repeats the same narrative description of CPR and included images of simulated CPR and endotracheal intubation, and a ventilated patient receiving intravenous medicinesVerbal description of CPR by research staff (same script as video arm)
Volandes et al212 skilled nursing facilities in Boston507951766 min video describing and depicting 3 options for care (life-prolonging care, limited medical care, comfort care)Verbal description of the same 3 options for care as the video
Volandes et al23Primary care clinic in rural Louisiana33734375Verbal description of advanced dementia and 3 options for care (life-prolonging care, limited medical care, comfort care), followed by a 6 min video. The video describes and depicts features of advanced dementia and the 3 options for careVerbal description of advanced dementia and 3 options for care (same script as video arm)
El-Jawahri et al18Patients with malignant glioma from outpatient oncology clinics in Boston23562751Verbal description of 3 options for care (life-prolonging care, limited medical care, comfort care), followed by 6 min video. The video describes and depicts 3 options for careVerbal description of 3 options for care (same script as video arm)
Volandes et al224 primary care clinics affiliated with teaching hospitals in Boston947510675Verbal description of principal features of advanced dementia, followed by 2 min video. The video depicts the principal features of advanced dementiaVerbal description of principal features of advanced dementia (same script as video arm)
Brown et al26Primary care clinic in Colorado6198162881Mailed package, including a videotape (Peace of Mind: Advance Directives), of 9 patient or family member interviews, plus the same printed materials as controlMailed package of printed materials including an educational pamphlet (You and Your Choices), a Colorado Advance Directive Guide, and forms for execution of a durable power of attorney for healthcare, a living will, and a CPR directive
Yamada et al17General internal medicine clinic of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Michigan6274557410 min video about advance directives (Advance Directives: Guaranteeing Your Health Care Rights), a handout about CPR and its outcomes, plus the same handout as controlHandout describing advance directives only (ie, not CPR)
Landry et al25General internal medicine clinic of a military teaching hospital in Maryland9561926315 min video detailing advance directives. The video was part of a 60 min seminar, which also included a didactic presentation about advance directives, interactive question and answer session and review of a recommended advance directive formMailed advance directive form and information pamphlet
Siegert et al24Nursing home care unit of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center in North Carolina1669206914 min video (The Right to Die … The Choice is Yours) about advance directives25 min sham video (I Am Joe's Heart) about heart disease prevention strategies
  • CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ICU, intensive care unit.