Table 4

Multilevel analyses for differences between intervention arm and control arm for secondary outcome measures at 4-month and 12-month follow-ups

Outcome measure (range)Scale (range)Mean (SD)Adjusted treatment effect
Intervention armControl armDifference in mean95% CIp Value
At 4-month follow-up
 Blood glucoseHbA1c in mmol/mol54.7 (11.0)52.1 (9.6)−0.03−1.971.910.98
 Diabetes-related distressPAID (0–100)26.1 (16.5)27.0 (19.7)−2.22−5.461.010.18
 Participation and autonomyIPA indoors (0–28)5.9 (4.4)7.0 (5.1)−1.27−2.25−0.300.01*
IPA family role (0–28)11.4 (5.3)12.8 (6.0)−1.25−2.33−0.170.02*
IPA outdoors (0–20)7.5 (4.0)8.1 (4.3)−0.69−1.430.030.06
IPA social relationships (0–28)8.4 (4.3)9.3 (4.7)−0.83−1.64−0.010.05
IPA work and education (0–24)10.3 (5.7)9.4 (5.7)+0.01−2.142.170.99
 Self-managementPIH (0–96)79.9 (7.9)76.3 (12.3)+0.01−2.192.210.99
 Quality of lifeSF-12 Physical component35.4 (10.0)35.7 (10.4)+0.17−1.621.960.85
 Quality of lifeSF-12 Mental component37.1 (11.4)38.5 (11.7)−0.99−3.541.550.44
 Self-efficacyGSES (12–60)39.5 (7.1)39.8 (7.4)+0.15−1.051.360.81
At 12-month follow-up
 Blood glucoseHbA1c in mmol/mol51.5 (10.8)50.4 (9.6)−0.80−2.751.150.42
 Diabetes-related distressPAID (0–100)27.8 (17.7)24.2 (16.9)+0.65−2.643.930.70
 Participation and autonomyIPA indoors (0–28)6.6 (4.6)7.4 (5.2)−0.63−1.630.360.21
IPA family role (0–28)12.0 (6.2)12.5 (5.9)−0.13−1.240.970.81
IPA outdoors (0–20)8.5 (4.1)7.9 (4.0)+0.56−0.191.300.14
IPA social relationships (0–28)9.1 (4.4)8.9 (4.0)−0.01−0.840.810.98
IPA work and education (0–24)11.4 (5.2)11.5 (4.5)+0.02−2.092.130.98
 Self-managementPIH (0–96)78.6 (8.6)77.9 (10.7)−2.25−4.49−0.010.05
 Quality of lifeSF-12 Physical component36.3 (10.5)34.9 (10.6)+0.33−1.482.140.72
 Quality of lifeSF-12 Mental component37.5 (11.9)37.3 (10.8)+0.43−2.153.010.74
 Self-efficacyGSES (12–60)38.6 (7.6)40.3 (6.9)−0.69−1.920.540.27
  • *Statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

  • DFT, Daily Functioning Thermometer; GSES, General Self-efficacy scale; higher scores refer to better outcomes; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; PAID, Problem Areas in Diabetes; IPA, Impact on Participation and Autonomy; lower mean scores reflect better outcomes;

  • PIH, Partners in Health Scale. SF-12=Short Form Health Questionnaire Physical and Mental component, mean score Dutch population is 50.