Table 3

Association between 1-month PCP contact and health service utilisation for 6 months postrelease

6-month health service utilisationUnadjusted HR
(95% CI)
N=847
Adjusted HR*
(95% CI)
N=779
Adjusted HR with imputed values*†‡
(95% CI) N=847
Mental health services2.34 (1.78 to 3.08)1.68 (1.24 to 2.27)†1.65 (1.24 to 2.19)§
 Non-recidivist (N=687)2.92 (2.13 to 4.01)2.15 (1.55 to 2.99)‡
 Recidivist (N=160)1.04 (0.58 to 1.86)1.03 (0.60 to 1.79)‡
 First offenders (N=340)¶2.71 (1.65 to 4.45)2.10 (1.22 to 3.61)‡
 Repeat offenders (N=506)¶2.16 (1.56 to 3.00)1.60 (1.15 to 2.23)‡
AOD services1.36 (1.07 to 1.73)1.53 (1.18 to 1.99)†1.48 (1.15 to 1.90)§
 Non-recidivist1.51 (1.14 to 2.01)1.48 (1.11 to 1.97)‡
 Recidivist1.08 (0.70 to 1.65)1.17 (0.76 to 1.81)‡
 First offenders1.07 (0.62 to 1.85)1.45 (0.81 to 2.62)‡
 Repeat offenders1.46 (1.13 to 1.90)1.36 (1.05 to 1.76)‡
Hospital services2.29 (1.60 to 3.29)2.25 (1.48 to 3.43)†2.07 (1.39 to 3.09)§
 Non-recidivist2.92 (1.86 to 4.57)2.41 (1.46 to 3.99)‡
 Recidivist1.28 (0.67 to 2.45)1.03 (0.53 to 2.01)‡
 First offenders2.65 (1.39 to 5.05)1.97 (1.02 to 3.78)‡
 Repeat offenders2.17 (1.40 to 3.35)1.85 (1.12 to 3.06)‡
Subsequent PCP services1.88 (1.63 to 2.18)1.52 (1.30 to 1.79)†1.47 (1.26 to 1.72)§
 Non-recidivist2.00 (1.71 to 2.35)1.48 (1.25 to 1.75)‡
 Recidivist1.28 (0.86 to 1.89)1.33 (0.86 to 2.06)‡
 First offenders1.98 (1.58 to 2.46)1.51 (1.19 to 1.93)‡
 Repeat offenders1.83 (1.51 to 2.23)1.46 (1.19 to 1.78)‡
  • *Model adjusted for age, gender, Indigenous status, Passports intervention, chronic conditions, CNS and non-CNS medication use, social visits in prison, hepatitis C status, PAM score, K10 score, ID status, transitional services access, supervised release conditions, juvenile offending, prior adult incarceration.

  • †Model fitted with first-order interaction terms.

  • ‡Missing covariate values (8%; N=68) replaced using multiple imputation. Covariates imputed were CNS and non-CNS medication use (N=48), HASI screening status (N=10), prior juvenile custody (N=8), K10 screening status (N=2), prior offending history (N=1), and supervised release conditions (N=1).

  • §Estimate significant after Bonferroni adjustment (p<0.0125) applied.

  • ¶Subgroup analysis total sums to less than 100% of the cohort due to missing data (N=1) on prior offences.

  • AOD, alcohol and other drug; CNS, central nervous system; HASI, Hayes Ability Screening Index; Hep C, hepatitis C; ID, intellectual disability; K10, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; PAM, Patient Activation Measure PCP, primary care physician.