Table 3

Association between overweight and obese BMI (vs normal BMI) and use of medications

Outcome
Taking ≥1 regular prescriptionsNumber of regular prescriptions≥1 High-risk medication†≥1 Low-risk medication‡
BMI groupCrude ME (95% CI)Crude ME (95% CI)Crude ME (95% CI)Crude ME (95% CI)
BMI
 Normal weightRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Overweight0.006 (0.001 to 0.011)**0.033 (0.012 to 0.053)**0.002 (0.001 to 0.004)**0.001 (0.001 to 0.003)
 Obese0.023 (0.011 to 0.035)**0.100 (0.057 to 0.143)**0.010 (0.005 to 0.016)**−0.001 (−0.003 to 0.003)
Adjusted ME§ (95% CI)Adjusted ME§ (95% CI)Adjusted ME§ (95% CI)Adjusted ME§ (95% CI)
BMI
 Normal weightRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Overweight0.002 (−0.002 to 0.007)0.021 (0.001 to 0.041)**0.001 (−0.001 to 0.003)0.001 (−0.001 to 0.003)
 Obese0.016 (0.005 to 0.027)**0.075 (0.035 to 0.115)**0.008 (0.003 to 0.013)**−0.001 (0.003 to 0.02)
Age at first sweep
 4Ref.Ref.RefRef
 50.002 (−0.004 to 0.008)0.008 (−0.017 to 0.033)0.001 (−0.001 to 0.003)−0.001 (−0.002 to 0.001)
 6−0.02 (−0.047 to 0.011)−0.101 (−0.258 to 0.057)−0.004 (−0.017 to 0.007)0.001 (−0.020 to 0.020)
Sweep
 MCS3Ref.Ref.RefRef
 MCS40.011 (0.008 to 0.014)**0.054 (0.042 to 0.067)**0.002 (0.001 to 0.003)**0.001 (−0.001 to 0.002)
 MCS50.022 (0.014 to 0.031)**0.089 (0.076 to 0.104)**0.011 (0.007 to 0.015)**0.002 (0.001 to 0.003)**
Maternal BMI
 PregnantRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Underweight0.009 (−0.008 to 0.026)0.054 (−0.026 to 0.133)0.004 (−0.003 to 0.011)−0.001 (−0.004 to 0.003)
 Normal weight−0.002 (−0.012 to 0.008)−0.016 (−0.065 to 0.033)−0.001 (−0.006 to 0.003)0.001 (−0.001 to 0.004)
 Overweight0.002 (−0.009 to 0.013)0.016 (−0.036 to 0.067)0.001 (−0.004 to 0.005)0.002 (−0.001 to 0.005)
 Obese0.013 (−0.001 to 0.026)*0.047 (−0.011 to 0.105)0.005 (−0.001 to 0.010)*0.001 (−0.002 to 0.004)*
Gender
 MaleRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Female−0.012 (−0.017 to −0.008)**−0.060 (−0.081 to −0.040)**−0.007 (−0.009 to −0.005)**0.001 (−0.001 to 0.002)
Education
 NoneRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 GCSE/A level−0.005 (−0.013 to 0.003)−0.012 (−0.045 to 0.021)−0.004 (−0.007 to −0.001)**0.002 (0.001 to 0.004)**
 Diploma higher education−0.003 (−0.013 to 0.009)−0.009 (−0.054 to 0.036)−0.002 (−0.006 to 0.002)0.002 (−0.001 to 0.005)
 Degree or higher−0.012 (−0.019 to −0.003)**−0.030 (−0.068 to 0.008)**−0.004 (−0.008 to −0.001)**0.001 (−0.002 to 0.002)
 Foreign qualification−0.004 (−0.021 to 0.019)−0.029 (−0.100 to 0.041)−0.006 (−0.011 to −0.001)**0.001 (−0.004 to 0.004)
Ethnicity
 WhiteRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Mixed0.017 (−0.003 to 0.036)0.056 (−0.026 to 0.140)0.002 (−0.005 to 0.008)0.002 (−0.003 to 0.007)
 Black African/Caribbean0.001 (−0.015 to 0.016)0.009 (−0.066 to 0.084)−0.001 (−0.006 to 0.006)−0.001 (−0.005 to 0.004)
 Asian0.007 (−0.004 to 0.016)0.002 (−0.038 to 0.043)−0.001 (−0.004 to 0.002)0.002 (−0.001 to 0.006)
 Other0.001 (−0.019 to 0.019)−0.041 (−0.115 to 0.033)−0.002 (−0.009 to 0.005)−0.002 (−0.007 to 0.003)
OECD equivalised income−0.001 (−0.001 to 0.001)−0.001 (−0.001 to 0.001)−0.001 (−0.001 to 0.001)*0.001 (−0.001 to 0.001)
  • **p<0.05; *0.1>p>0.05.

  • †High-risk medications: medications for respiratory, central nervous system and endocrine conditions.

  • ‡Low-risk medications: medications for gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, infections, obstetric, malignant, nutrition and blood, musculoskeletal, ear, eye and skin conditions.

  • §Adjusted: age, gender, ethnicity, main respondent education, OECD equivalised income, natural mother's BMI.

  • BMI, body mass index; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; MCS, Millennium Cohort Study; ME, marginal effect; OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.