Table 2

The haemodynamic changes in children and adolescents

GroupSupine heart rate, bpmHeart rate max*, bpmδ Heart rate†, bpmSupine SBP, mm HgUpright SBP, mm Hgδ SBP‡, mm HgSupine DBP, mm HgUpright DBP, mm Hgδ DBP§, mm Hg
6–12 years88±11110±1222±8108±10116±108±863±975±912±8
p Value0.0050.0850.1620.6250.3220.5070.8840.0720.031
13–18 years79±11¶101±14¶22±10113±9¶120±10¶7±668±7¶78±8¶10±6¶
p Value0.1470.074<0.0010.005<0.0010.1620.0510.6270.004
  • Values are mean±SD.

  • *Heart rate max is the maximum heart rate during 10 min of standing.

  • †δ Heart rate is the increased heart rate during the active standing test.

  • ‡δ SBP is the increased SBP during the active standing test.

  • §δ DBP is the increased DBP during the active standing test.

  • ¶p<0.001, vs 6–12 years.

  • DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.