Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria for study participation

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
▸ Aged between 18 and 75
▸ Chronic low back pain for at least 6 months duration
▸ Score of 14% or more for disability on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)
▸ Independently mobile (with or without aids), to be capable of participating in a rehabilitation programme
▸ Be able to speak and understand English well enough to be able to complete the questionnaires independently
▸ Primary pain area is not the lumbar spine (from T12 to buttocks)
▸ Leg pain as the primary problem (eg, nerve root compression or disc prolapse with true radicular pain/radiculopathy, lateral recess or central spinal stenosis)
▸ Less than 6 months after lumbar spine, lower limb or abdominal surgery
▸ Pain relieving procedures such as injection-based therapy (eg, epidurals) and day case procedures (eg, rhizotomy) in the past 3 months
▸ Pregnancy
▸ Rheumatological/inflammatory disease (eg, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus erythematosus, Scheuermann's disease)
▸ Progressive neurological disease (eg, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, motor neuron disease)
▸ Scoliosis (if considered the primary driver of pain)
▸ Unstable cardiac conditions
▸ Red flag disorders like malignancy/cancer, acute traumas like fracture (less than 6 months ago) or infection, spinal cord compression/cauda equina