Table 3

Characteristics of smoking cessation

Austrian
n=140
n (%)
Bosnian
n=140
n (%)
Turkish
n=140
n (%)
p ValuePost hoc analyses
Already tried to quit0.0240.904*; 0.017†; 0.023‡
 Yes81 (57.9)83 (59.3)101 (72.1)
 No59 (42.1)57 (40.7)39 (27.9)
If yes, how often0.0210.012*; 0.015†; 0.637‡
 Once32 (40.1)30 (36.2)31 (31.4)
 Twice28 (34.9)15 (17.7)23 (23.0)
 More than twice21 (26.0)21 (26.1)47 (46.6)
If yes, which cessation methods were used
 Physician counselling25 (30.9)33 (39.8)7 (6.9)<0.0010.230*; <0.001†; <0.001‡
 Phone counselling6 (7.4)7 (8.4)3 (3.0)0.25
 Group counselling12 (14.8)10 (12.0)3 (3.0)0.0150.600*; 0.004†; <0.017‡
 Nicotine patch14 (17.3)11 (13.3)8 (7.9)0.160
 Nicotine gum16 (19.8)26 (31.3)15 (14.9)0.0230.09*; 0.380†; <0.000‡
 Nicotine inhalator12 (14.8)7 (8.4)16 (15.8)0.300
 Acupuncture5 (6.2)2 (2.4)6 (5.9)0.450
 Hypnosis5 (6.2)1 (1.2)3 (3.0)0.210
 Book13 (16.0)15 (18.1)1 (1.0)<0.0010.730*; <0.001†; <0.001‡
 None at all36 (44.4)31 (37.3)68 (67.3)<0.001<0.390*; 0.002†; <0.001‡
Currently preferred cessation methods
 Counselling52 (37.1)78 (55.7)103 (73.6)<0.0010.003*; <0.001†; 0.002‡
 Nicotine patch17 (12.1)28 (20.0)19 (13.6)0.15
 Nicotine gum28 (20.0)37 (26.4)24 (17.1)0.15
 Nicotine inhalator25 (17.9)9 (6.4)20 (14.3)0.0140.005*; <0.516†; <0.031‡
 Acupuncture57 (40.7)15 (10.7)27 (19.3)<0.001<0.001*; <0.001†; 0.045‡
 Hypnosis43 (30.7)17 (12.1)26 (18.6)<0.001<0.001*; 0.026†; 0.136‡
 Book18 (12.9)21 (15.0)10 (7.1)0.106
 Others26 (18.6)15 (10.7)11 (7.9)0.0190.090*; 0.013†; 0.410‡
Who should assist in quitting
 Physician104 (74.3)117 (83.6)109 (77.9)0.161
 Dentist16 (11.4)36 (25.7)12 (8.6)0.0010.003*; 0.551†; <0.001‡
 Medical student12 (8.6)15 (10.7)14 (10.0)0.828
 Priest/Hodscha17 (12.1)26 (18.6)28 (20.0)0.175
 Supervisor53 (37.9)27 (19.3)21 (15.0)<0.0010.001*; <0.001†; <0.341‡
 Others45 (32.1)23 (16.4)26 (18.6)0.0030.003*; 0.013†; 0.637‡
Single or group counselling preferred<0.0010.004*; <0.001†; <0.001‡
 Single counselling105 (75.0)80 (57.1)38 (27.1)
 Group counselling35 (25.0)58 (41.4)102 (72.9)
 No answer02 (1.4)0
Preferred cessation language<0.001<0.001*; <0.001†; <0.066‡
 German100 (71.4)26 (18.6)31 (22.1)
 Mother tongue40 (28.6)109 (77.9)109 (77.9)
 German+mother tongue05 (3.6)0
  • *Austrian versus Bosnian.

  • †Austrian versus Turkish.

  • ‡Bosnian versus Turkish.