Table 1

Participant characteristics

Austrian
n=140
n (%)
Bosnian
n=140
n (%)
Turkish
n=140
n (%)
p ValuePost hoc analyses
Age, years37±1239±1336±130.12
Sex, male66 (47.1)79 (56.4)75 (53.6)0.28
School, years12±2.012±3.010±3.0<0.0010.173*; <0.001†; <0.001‡
Highest level of education<0.0010.558*; <0.001†; <0.001‡
 Primary school22 (15.7)26 (18.6)65 (46.4)
 Apprenticeship53 (37.9)60 (42.9)34 (24.3)
 Matura52 (37.1)41 (29.3)41 (29.3)
 University degree13 (9.3)13 (9.3)0
Employment<0.001<0.001*; <0.001†; <0.001‡
 Manual worker21 (15.0)89 (6) 3.653 (37.9)
 Employee79 (56.4)6 (4.3)9 (6.4)
 Managing employee9 (6.4)7 (5.0)1 (0.7)
 Self-employed3 (2.1)5 (3.6)4 (2.9)
 Civil servant4 (2.9)6 (4.3)0
 Retiree2 (1.4)7 (5.0)9 (6.4)
 Pupil/student12 (8.6)11 (7.9)26 (18.6)
 Unemployed/housewife10 (7.1)9 (6.4)38 (27.1)
  • Age (years) and school (years) are shown as mean±SD.

  • *Austrian versus Bosnian.

  • †Austrian versus Turkish.

  • ‡Bosnian versus Turkish.