Table 1

Surgical obesity treatment study outcomes

Outcome categorySpecific outcomes
Mortality30 day, 1 year and 10 year mortality; all-cause and cause-specific
WeightChange in weight/body mass index
SurgicalIncidence of surgical complications 1 year and 10 years postoperatively
Hospital length of stay/rate of readmission
Incidence of surgical site infection
Postoperative pain
Rate of reoperation
Rate of revisional procedures
Rate of body-contouring surgery
Incidence of excess skin affecting daily life
Change in gastrointestinal symptoms
CardiovascularIncidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events
Incidence of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease
Cardiovascular medication prescription
DiabetesIncidence of type 2 diabetes
Change in glycaemic control
Change in blood lipid concentration
Change in blood pressure
Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria
Incidence of retinopathy
Incidence of amputation
Incidence of chronic kidney disease
Diabetes medication prescription
CancerIncidence of all and specific cancers
BehaviouralChange in prevalence/incidence of depression and anxiety
Change in health-related quality of life
Change in rate of alcohol use disorder
Change in smoking status
Change in physical activity levels
Change in fat, fibre and calcium intake
Life orientation (optimism)
Reproductive/urologicalChange in menstrual cycle/abnormalities
Incidence of pregnancy and fetal outcome
Change in prevalence of incontinence
Change in prevalence of prostatic symptoms
Change in rate of erectile dysfunction
NutritionalIncidence of micronutrient deficiency
Prescription of multivitamins and nutritional supplements
EconomicCost of presurgical and postsurgical care pathways
Healthcare utilisation
Change in receipt of Social Security benefits
Change in employment status
Change in education
Sickness absence from work/study
Change of use of aids and specialist equipment (eg, walking frame or stair lift)
Social care requirements
FracturesIncidence of fractures by site