Table 2

Direct access* to investigations (%)

AustraliaCanadaDenmarkNorwaySwedenUK
NSWVictoriaBritish ColumbiaManitobaOntarioEnglandNorthern IrelandWales
Cancer diagnosis blood tests†
 Blood tests
 95% CI
98.0
95.2 to 99.3
99.5
96.6 to 100
81.7
75.9 to 86.3
69.3
62.8 to 75.1
80.7
77.2 to 83.7
89.8
85.3 to 93.1
70.9
64.5 to 76.6
75.8
69.1 to 81.4
94.0
90.1 to 96.5
89.0
81.2 to 93.9
75.7
69.3 to 81.1
Endoscopy
 Upper GI endoscopy
 95% CI
26.0
20.8 to 31.9
66.1
58.9 to 72.8
7.4
4.5 to 11.8
13.7
9.6 to 18.9
19.5
16.4 to 22.9
56.5
50.1 to 62.6
18.0
13.2 to 23.5
46.2
38.9 to 53.2
68.1
61.9 to 73.8
68.5
59.1 to 77.2
66.1
59.3 to 72.2
 Flexi sigmoidoscopy
 95% CI
17.7
13.3 to 23.1
34.9
28.2 to 42.2
13.1
9.2 to 18.3
13.2
9.2 to 18.4
17.7
14.7 to 21.0
54.9
48.6 to 61.1
16.2
11.7 to 21.6
34.2
27.8 to 41.5
40.6
34.6 to 47.0
14.8
8.9 to 23.0
32.3
26.1 to 38.8
 Colonoscopy
 95% CI
26.4
21.1 to 32.3
61.9
54.5 to 68.8
7.9
4.9 to 12.3
13.2
9.2 to 18.4
22.4
19.1 to 26.0
52.5
46.2 to 58.8
17.1
12.5 to 22.6
45.2
37.9 to 52.2
33.1
27.4 to 39.3
19.8
13.3 to 29.2
22.0
16.8 to 28.2
Imaging
 X-ray whole body‡
 95% CI
99.2
96.9 to 99.9
100.0
97.5 to 100
96.1
92.4 to 98.1
92.5
88.1 to 95.5
98.0
96.4 to 98.9
92.2
88.0 to 95.0
74.3
68.1 to 79.8
86.4
80.6 to 90.7
82.5
77.1 to 86.9
89.9
82.3 to 94.6
87.6
82.3 to 91.5
 CT whole body
 95% CI
99.6
97.5 to 100
100.0
97.5 to 100
92.6
88.2 to 95.5
86.4
81.1 to 90.4
95.1
93 to 96.7
22.0
17.1 to 27.7
73.5
67.2 to 79.0
84.3
78.4 to 89.0
21.5
16.7 to 27.2
27.5
19.6 to 37.0
46.3
39.6 to 53.2
 MRI whole body
 95% CI
44.9
38.7 to 51.2
54.0
46.6 to 61.2
62.0
55.4 to 68.3
74.6
68.3 to 80.0
91.6
89 to 93.6
16.9
12.6 to 22.2
70.4
64.0 to 76.2
68.2
61.1 to 74.5
19.9
15.3 to 25.5
11.0
6.1 to 18.8
31.2
25.2 to 37.9
 Ultrasound whole body
 95% CI
98.0
95.2 to 99.3
98.9
95.8 to 99.8
93.0
88.7 to 95.8
84.2
78.7 to 88.6
95.4
93.4 to 96.9
78.2
72.4 to 82.9
70.9
64.5 to 76.6
82.3
76.1 to 87.2
78.1
72.4 to 82.9
79.8
70.8 to 86.7
71.1
64.5 to 76.9
  • Exact 95% CI calculated for these figures.

  • *Direct access: primary care physicians can order the test without specific referral to secondary care.

  • †Survey did not define which specific tests.

  • ‡Access to all individual body parts.