Table 4

Adjusted ORs (AORs) of RARP versus non-RARP by patient characteristics stratified by hospital RARP surgery volume

High-RARP-volume (≥500 cases)Medium-RARP-volume (200–499 cases)Low-RARP-volume (≤199 cases)
AOR (95% CI)p ValueAOR (95% CI)p ValueAOR (95% CI)p Value
Independent variables
Race/ethnicity (ref.=non-Hispanic white)
 Non-Hispanic black0.87 (0.560 to 1.358)0.5450.94 (0.643 to 1.381)0.7600.86 (0.654 to 1.129)0.277
 Hispanic0.96 (0.611 to 1.517)0.8711.04 (0.794 to 1.367)0.7670.93 (0.752 to 1.152)0.509
 Other1.47 (0.873 to 2.484)0.1471.02 (0.777 to 1.340)0.8851.21 (0.916 to 1.595)0.180
Insurance (ref.=private)
 Medicare0.78 (0.505 to 1.205)0.2640.85 (0.649 to 1.119)0.2500.97 (0.775 to 1.204)0.755
 Medicaid0.09 (0.050 to 0.163)**<0.0010.51 (0.280 to 0.915)*0.0241.27 (0.759 to 2.116)0.365
 Other†0.38 (0.176 to 0.840)*0.0170.64 (0.395 to 1.049)0.0771.28 (0.631 to 2.597)0.493
Median household Income (ref.=1, lowest)
 2, middle-low0.79 (0.510 to 1.227)0.2950.90 (0.657 to 1.228)0.5000.99 (0.787 to 1.253)0.053
 3, middle-high0.96 (0.634 to 1.450)0.8430.69 (0.506 to 0.927)*0.0140.81 (0.642 to 1.018)0.071
 4, highest1.07 (0.710 to 1.614)0.7440.53 (0.393 to 0.707)**<0.0010.72 (0.572 to 0.913)**0.007
Sample size
Hospital61552
Patient632256494450
  • Dependent variable is a binary code of receiving RARP (=1) versus not receiving RARP (=0).

  • High-volume hospitals are those that performed more than 500 RARPs during the study period, medium-volume-hospitals are those that performed between 200 and 499 RARPs during the study period, and low-volume-hospitals are those that performed fewer than 200 RARPs during the study period. Results are also adjusted for patient's age, geographic location, comorbidity, year of the procedure, and hospital characteristics (ownership, teaching status, bed size).

  • †Dependent variables for model 2 (RARP-performing hospital model) was a patient-level robotic surgery binary code (=1 if a patient underwent RARP).

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • RARP, Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.