Table 3

Multivariate analysis of factors associated with diabetic retinopathy

Type 1 DMType 2 DM
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Gender (male)1.38 (1.09 to 1.75)0.006*1.19 (1.11 to 1.29)<0.001*
Age (decades)0.92 (0.84 to 0.99)0.036*0.90 (0.86 to 0.93)<0.001*
Disease duration (decades)35.0† (22.5 to 54.5)<0.001*2.89 (2.72 to 3.07)<0.001*
HbA1c (×10 mmol/mol)1.17 (1.10 to 1.24)<0.001*1.12 (1.10 to 1.15)<0.001*
Cholesterol1.14 (1.01 to 1.29)0.029*0.94 (0.90 to 0.97)0.001*
Systolic BP (×10 mm Hg)1.03 (0.95 to 1.13)0.4791.11 (1.08 to 1.14)<0.001*
Diastolic BP (×10 mm Hg)1.16 (1.02 to 1.33)0.024*0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)0.028*
Overall SIMD score (×10)1.13 (1.04 to 1.22)0.002*0.98 (0.95 to 1.00)0.074
  • *Significant at p<0.05.

  • †Variable was log10-transformed prior to analysis, so the coefficient represents the OR for a 10-fold increase in disease duration.

  • BP, blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; SIMD, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation.