Table 4

Risk factors for emergency cancer presentation (number of studies)

Risk factorColorectal cancerLung cancer
Demographic
 Age (older)
 Gender (female)
 Deprivation (higher)
 Annual income—household, individual (lower)
 Ethnicity (non-white origin)
 Enrolment in health insurance
 Marital status (unmarried, divorced, widowed)
 Education level (lower)
 Social class (lower)
 Residence (ownership, location)
 Childlessness
History
 Cancer site (colon)
 Symptom type
 Symptom type (pain)
 Symptom type (weight loss)
 Symptom type (obstruction)
 Symptom type (change in bowel habit)
 Symptom type (bleeding)
 Help-seeking at initial symptom
 Comorbidity
 Performance status (poorer)
 Smoking history
 BMI (extreme)
 Primary care utilisation (lower)
 Secondary care utilisation (higher)
 Previous screening/investigation
 Family history of cancer
  • ● Study reports association with EP (evidence rated as ‘strong’, ‘strong−’ or ‘moderate’); ⊙ study reports association with EP (evidence rated as ‘insufficient’); ○ study reports no association with EP.

  • BMI, body mass index; EP, emergency presentation.