Table 3

Hazard ratios (95% CI) for level of education attained in relation to major causes of death

AdjustmentEducational attainmentp Value for trendp Value for interaction by region
TertiarySecondaryPrimary or none
All-cause mortality
Australasia
 Age, sex11.11 (1.02 to 1.21)1.19 (1.10 to 1.29)<0.001
 Multiple11.08 (0.99 to 1.18)1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)0.001
Asia
 Age, sex11.26 (1.11 to 1.42)1.64 (1.46 to 1.85)<0.001<0.001
 Multiple11.21 (1.07 to 1.36)1.56 (1.38 to 1.76)<0.001<0.001
Cardiovascular mortality
Australasia
 Age, sex11.16 (1.00 to 1.35)1.31 (1.15 to 1.51)<0.001
 Multiple11.10 (0.94 to 1.28)1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)0.01
Asia
 Age, sex11.30 (1.03 to 1.64)1.89 (1.51 to 2.37)<0.0010.0008
 Multiple11.23 (0.98 to 1.56)1.78 (1.42 to 2.23)<0.0010.0002
Cancer mortality
Australasia
 Age, sex11.05 (0.92 to 1.20)1.09 (0.97 to 1.23)0.12
 Multiple11.03 (0.90 to 1.18)1.07 (0.95 to 1.20)0.27
Asia
 Age, sex11.21 (1.01 to 1.45)1.52 (1.26 to 1.84)<0.0010.001
 Multiple11.16 (0.96 to 1.39)1.39 (1.15 to 1.69)<0.0010.01
Mortality due to other causes (not cardiovascular, not cancer)
Australasia
 Age, sex11.16 (0.98 to 1.38)1.24 (1.06 to 1.45)0.01
 Multiple11.16 (0.98 to 1.39)1.23 (1.04 to 1.46)0.02
Asia
 Age, sex11.24 (1.00 to 1.53)1.58 (1.28 to 1.96)<0.0010.04
 Multiple11.21 (0.98 to 1.50)1.56 (1.26 to 1.94)<0.0010.04
  • Multiple adjustment is for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, smoking and alcohol drinking.

  • For numbers of events, see online supplementary appendix table S4.