Table 1

Baseline characteristics of included studies

Study nameAlternative name (if applicable)Study designAverage age (years)Gender % femaleCurriculum intensity (sessions)Curriculum duration (months, unless otherwise stated)Curriculum delivererControl group typeEthnicity (dominant)Country
Armstrong et al (peer)10C-RCT124956PeersNo curriculumNSAustralia
Armstrong et al (teacher)10C-RCT124956TeachersNo curriculumNSAustralia
Ausems et al (in school)11C-RCT13523×50 minNSTeachersNSNSThe Netherlands
Ausems et al (out school)11C-RCT1352NSNSTeachersNSNSThe Netherlands
Aveyard et al199912C-RCT13.5506×1 h12TeachersUsual practice86% WhiteUK
Botvin and Eng 198013C-RCT13.5NS103Outside specialistsNo curriculumWhiteUSA
Botvin and Eng 198214C-RCT12.5NS12×1 h3PeersNo curriculum90%+ WhiteUSA
Botvin et al (LST intensive)15C-RCT12.5NS151TeachersUsual practice91% WhiteUSA
Botvin et al (LST)15C-RCT12.5NS153.5TeachersUsual practice91% WhiteUSA
Botvin et al16C-RCT11.510015+ 10 boostersNSTeachers10 sessions of information only, plus 3 boosters60% African-AmericanUSA
Brown et al17C-RCT13.550NSNSStudents and teachersUsual practiceNSCanada
Buller et al (Australia)18Consider ThisC-RCT11 to 14526×1 h6Web-basedUsual practice73% Australian/EuropeanAustralia
Buller et al (USA)18Consider ThisC-RCT11 to 13526×1 h6Web-basedUsual practice56% WhiteUSA
Chou et al19C-RCT12.54813×45 min3Health educators (USA)Usual practiceNSChina
Coe et al20C-RCT12.5NS8NSMedical studentsNo curriculum88%+ WhiteUSA
Connell et al21Adolescent Transitions ProgrammeC-RCT114762Parent consultantsNS42% WhiteUSA
Conner and Higgins (I)22C-RCT11.550NS24NSInformation and homework intentionsNSUK
Crone et al23C-RCT10 to 12536×1 h24TeachersUsual practiceNSThe Netherlands
De Vries et al (High)24C-RCT12.5NS5×45 minNSPeers and teachersNSNSThe Netherlands
De Vries et al (Denmark)25European Smoking Prevention Framework ApproachC-RCT13506×1 hNSTeachersUsual practiceEuropeanDenmark
De Vries et al (Finland)25European Smoking Prevention Framework ApproachC-RCT13505×45 minNSTeachersUsual practiceEuropeanFinland
De Vries et al (Portugal)25European Smoking Prevention Framework ApproachC-RCT13506NSTeachersUsual practiceEuropeanPortugal
De Vries et al (UK)25European Smoking Prevention Framework ApproachC-RCT135050×30 minNSTeachersUsual practiceEuropeanUK
Denson and Stretch26C-RCT12 to 14NS324ResearcherNo curriculumNSCanada
Elder et al 199627CATCHC-RCT10.5514×50 minNSTeachersNo curriculum71% WhiteUSA
Ellickson and Bell (HealthEd)28ALERTC-RCT13.5488+3 booster2Community adultsNo curriculum or usual practice67% WhiteUSA
Ellickson and Bell 1990 (Teen)28ALERTC-RCT13.5488+3 booster2StudentsNo curriculum or usual practice67% WhiteUSA
Ellickson et al29ALERTC-RCT12.5507+3NSTeachersUsual practiceNSUSA
Ennett et al30DAREC-RCT10.54917×1 h4Uniformed police officerNS54% WhiteUSA
Faggiano et al31UnpluggedC-RCT12 to 144812×1 h3TeachersUsual practiceNSAustria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden
Figa-Talamanca and Modolo32C-RCT15 to 174733 (days)Health educatorsNo curriculumNSItaly
Gabrhelik et al33UnpluggedC-RCT115012×45 min12TeachersUsual practiceCzechCzech Republic
Garcia et al 200534ALERTC-RCT13478×1 hNSTeachersUsual practiceNSSpain
Hort et al35C-RCT13384×1–2 h + 15×1 h24Physicians and teachersPhysician talk on smoking if requestedNSGermany
Howard et al36C-RCT10465×40 minNSTeachersNSNSUSA
Johnson et al37Acadiana Coalition of Teens against TobaccoC-RCT1551NS30TeachersNS61% WhiteUSA
Kellam and Anthony (GBG)38Good Behaviour GameC-RCT5.5503× per week×10 min24TeachersUsual practice70% African-AmericanUSA
La Torre et al (adolescents)39C-RCT1452NSNSTeachersNSNSItaly
Luna-Adame et al40C-RCT115121×1 h in year 1, 12×1 h in second year24Psychology studentsUsual practiceNSSpain
Nutbeam et al (FSE)41C-RCT11.5433NSTeachersNo curriculumNSUK
Peterson et al 200042Hutchinson Smoking Prevention ProjectC-RCT7 to 94965NSTeachersUsual practice90% CaucasianUSA
Piper et al (HFL Age)43Healthy for Life ProjectC-RCT14.55258 (in 3×4-week periods)36Community adultsUsual practice92%+ WhiteUSA
Piper et al (HFL)43Healthy for Life ProjectC-RCT14.5525412Community adultsUsual practice92%+ WhiteUSA
Prokhorov et al44A Smoking Prevention Interactive ExperienceC-RCT16595×30 min+2 boostersNSComputerUsual practice51% HispanicUSA
Resnicow et al (Harm Min)45Keep LeftC-RCT1450824TeachersUsual practice60% BlackSouth Africa
Resnicow et al (LST)45Life Skills TrainingC-RCT1450824TeachersUsual practice60% BlackSouth Africa
Ringwalt et al46ALERTC-RCT115211×45 min+3 boosters24TeachersNo curriculum53% WhiteUSA
Schulze et al47Be smart—don’t startC-RCT1250NSNSTeachersNo curriculumNSGermany
Seal48C-RCT15.51110×1 hNSNSUsual practiceThaiThailand
Simons-Morton et al49Going PlacesC-RCT11571836TeachersNS72% WhiteUSA
Spoth et al (ISFP)50Iowa Strengthening Families ProgramC-RCT115571 (day)Project staff4 mailed booklets on changes in adolescentsNSUSA
Spoth et al (PDFY)50Preparing for the Drug Free Years ProgramC-RCT11555NSProject staff4 mailed booklets on changes in adolescentsNSUSA
Spoth et al (LST + SFP)51SFP 10C-RCT12.5457×1 h + 4 boosters1 (day) + boosters 1 yr laterProject staff and teachersNS95%+ WhiteUSA
Spoth et al (LST)51SFP 10C-RCT12.54515×45 minNSProject staff and teachersNS95%+ WhiteUSA
Storr et al52C-RCT5.747NSNSTeachersUsual practice86% African-AmericanUSA
Telch et al (no peers)53C-RCT124750.75TeachersNo curriculum24% WhiteUSA
Telch 1990 (peers)53C-RCT124750.75PeersNo curriculum24% WhiteUSA
Unger et al (CHIPS)54Choosing Healthy Influences for a Positive SelfC-RCT1154NSNSHealth educatorsUsual practice61% HispanicUSA
Unger et al (FLAVOR)54Fun Learning About Vitality, Origins and RespectC-RCT1154NSNSHealth educatorsUsual practice58% HispanicUSA
Valente et al55Project Towards No Drug AbuseC-RCT1638123–4-weeksPeersUsual practice72% Hispanic/LatinoUSA
Van Lier et al56Good Behaviour GameC-RCT7483× per week×10 minNSTeachersNo curriculum69% Dutch descentThe Netherlands
Walter et al57Know your BodyC-RCT9472 per week12TeachersInformation84% WhiteUSA
Weichold et al (peer)58Life Skills TrainingC-RCT114410×90 min, 5× 45 min+boostersNSPeersProduced student newspaperGermanGermany
Weichold et al (teacher)58Life Skills TrainingC-RCT114410×90 min 5×45 min + boostersNSTeachersProduced student newspaperGermanGermany
Wen et al59C-RCT1346NS18School nurses and health educatorsUsual practiceNSChina
  • C-RCT, cluster randomised controlled trial; NS, not stated.