Table 1

Co-occurring medical conditions and prescription medications among fibromyalgia patients

CharacteristicN (%)
Medical conditions
 Chronic joint pain/degenerative arthritis986 (88.7)
 Migraines/chronic headaches693 (62.4)
 Hyperlipidaemia562 (51.3)
 Obesity (BMI >30)519 (48.0)
 Hypertension508 (46.2)
 Irritable bowel361 (32.5)
 Plantar fasciitis276 (24.8)
 Diabetes mellitus, type II196 (17.9)
 Temporomandibular joint disorder193 (17.4)
 Chronic pelvic pain170 (15.3)
 Endometriosis (confirmed, females only)91 (8.2)
 Rheumatoid arthritis59 (5.3)
 Irritable bladder44 (4.0)
 Systemic lupus erythematosus17 (1.5)
Mental health conditions
 Depression834 (75.1)
 Anxiety628 (56.5)
 Dysthymia216 (19.4)
 Bipolar disorder65 (5.9)
Sleep conditions
 Insomnia562 (50.6)
 Restless legs syndrome225 (20.3)
Medications
 Sleep aids370 (33.3)
 SSRI319 (28.7)
 Opioids249 (22.4)
 SNRI233 (21.0)
 α-2-δ ligands215 (19.4)
 Benzodiazepines214 (19.3)
 Other psychiatric medications*206 (18.5)
 Tricyclic antidepressants190 (17.1)
 Tramadol174 (15.7)
 Skeletal muscle relaxants167 (15.0)
  • *Other psychiatric medications include lithium, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, antipsychotics, bupropion, lamotrigine and tetracyclic antidepressants.

  • BMI, body mass index; SNRI, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.