Table 2

Factors associated with health research publications in the WHO African Region from 2000 to 2014, identified by negative binomial regression

VariableUnivariableMultivariable
IRR (95% CI)p ValueIRR (95% CI)p Value
Gross domestic product (US$)2.18 (1.86 to 2.54)0.0002.05 (1.39 to 3.04)0.000
Adult literacy rate2.27 (0.76 to 6.85)0.1440.73 (0.24 to 2.18)0.568
Physicians per 100 000 population1.43 (1.06 to 1.94)0.0180.76 (0.53 to 1.09)0.137
Total expenditure on health3.58 (1.10 to 11.63)0.0340.49 (0.17 to 1.41)0.186
Private expenditure on health2.50 (1.36 to 4.62)0.0031.86 (1.00 to 3.47)0.050
Research and development expenditure2.13 (1.79 to 2.54)0.0001.08 (0.70 to 1.68)0.714
Human development index10.49 (1.87 to 58.94)0.0082.27 (0.16 to 31.71)0.543
  • IRR, incidence rate ratio.