Table 5

Self-reported barriers or concerns toward cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination among rural and urban women in the study population

Barrier or concernTotal (n=478) % (n)Rural (n=258) % (n)Urban (n=220) % (n)p Value*
Cervical cancer screening
 Unaware of screening tests66.5 (322)63.4 (166)70.3 (156)0.108†
 Cannot take time off work25.6 (124)25.6 (67)25.7 (57)0.979†
 Other priorities in household3.72 (18)6.11 (16)0.90 (2)0.003‡
 Husband would not approve4.13 (20)5.75 (15)2.25 (5)0.067‡
 Does not have someone to go with7.02 (34)8.78 (23)4.95 (11)0.101†
 Cannot afford to pay for a test49.3 (239)48.3 (127)50.5 (112)0.635†
 Travel distance is too far20.0 (97)26.6 (70)12.2 (27)<0.001†
HPV vaccination§
 Safety of the vaccine's administration19.1 (110)18.8 (57)19.5 (53)0.840†
 Short-term side effects19.7 (113)18.2 (55)21.3 (58)0.339†
 Unknown future side effects40.7 (234)42.2 (128)39.0 (106)0.425†
 Risk of encouraging earlier sex14.3 (82)19.8 (60)8.1 (22)<0.001†
 Conformity with religious beliefs6.3 (36)7.9 (24)4.4 (12)0.080†
 Effectiveness of vaccine10.6 (61)12.9 (39)8.1 (22)0.063†
 Cost of vaccination47.8 (275)49.5 (150)46.0 (125)0.395†
 Availability13.0 (75)13.9 (42)12.2 (33)0.538†
 Previous testing of vaccine's safety8.2 (47)10.6 (32)5.5 (15)0.027†
 Social acceptability15.5 (89)16.2 (49)14.7 (40)0.628†
  • *Note: choosing multiple barriers/concerns were allowed.

  • †Pearson's χ2 test.‡Fisher's exact test.

  • §Note: sample size for HPV vaccination portion of the survey was the follows: total (n=575), rural (n=303), urban (n=272).

  • HPV, human papillomavirus.