Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics among rural and urban women in the study population

CharacteristicTotal (n=575) % (n)Rural (n=303) % (n)Urban (n=272) % (n)p Value
Age
 Mean (±SD)33.8 (9.7)36.2 (9.7)31.2 (8.9)<0.001*
 <3038.0 (215)27.5 (82)49.6 (133)<0.001†
 30–3932.9 (186)34.2 (102)31.3 (84)
 40–4921.4 (121)26.9 (80)15.3 (41)
 ≥507.8 (44)11.4 (34)3.7 (10)
Marital status
 Single13.7 (78)10.3 (31)17.6 (47)<0.001†
 Partner8.6 (49)4.3 (13)13.5 (36)
 Married65.6 (373)74.2 (224)55.8 (149)
 Separated6.7 (38)4.6 (14)9.0 (24)
 Divorced0.4 (2)0.7 (2)0.0 (0)
 Widow5.1 (29)6.0 (18)4.1 (11)
Partnership type
 Monogamy95.8 (406)97.7 (31)92.8 (47)0.015†
 Polygamy4.3 (18)2.3 (6)7.2 (12)
Religion
 Christian82.9 (474)95.0 (287)69.3 (187)<0.001†
 Muslim17.1 (98)5.0 (15)30.7 (83)
Culture
 Chagga68.2 (391)84.8 (256)49.8 (135)<0.001†
 Pare12.4 (71)5.6 (17)19.9 (54)
 Other19.4 (111)9.6 (29)30.3 (82)
Monthly household income (TSH)
 <20 00042.7 (241)62.2 (184)21.2 (57)<0.001‡
 20 000–39 99922.5 (127)22.6 (67)22.3 (60)
 40 000–59 99911.2 (63)7.4 (22)15.2 (41)
 60 000–79 9994.4 (25)0.7 (2)8.6 (23)
 80 000–99 9993.2 (18)1.7 (5)4.8 (13)
 ≥100 00016.1 (91)5.4 (16)27.9 (75)
Occupation
 Housewife/farmer51.0 (284)76.6 (226)22.1 (58)<0.001§
 Small business38.4 (214)15.0 (44)64.6 (170)
 Professional2.0 (11)1.4 (4)2.7 (7)
 Student4.3 (24)4.1 (12)4.6 (12)
 Teacher2.3 (13)1.7 (5)3.0 (8)
 Health professional2.0 (11)1.0 (3)3.0 (8)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less8.4 (48)10.9 (33)5.5 (15)<0.001‡
 Secondary (to Form 4)65.8 (377)74.5 (225)56.1 (152)
 Secondary complete21.6 (124)11.9 (36)32.5 (88)
 College/University4.2 (24)2.7 (8)5.9 (16)
Health insurance
 No86.0 (485)85.8 (254)86.2 (231)0.896†
 Yes14.0 (79)14.2 (42)13.8 (37)
Number of births
 Mean (±SD)2.7 (2.1)3.5 (2.2)1.9 (1.5)<0.001*
 None14.7 (84)7.6 (23)22.6 (61)<0.001‡
 1–236.8 (211)30.7 (93)43.7 (118)
 3–431.1 (178)34.3 (104)27.4 (74)
 >417.5 (100)27.4 (83)6.3 (17)
Daughter aged 10–25
 No60.4 (347)51.5 (156)70.2 (191)<0.001†
 Yes39.7 (228)48.5 (147)29.8 (81)
  • *Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

  • †Pearson's χ2 test.

  • ‡Cochran-Armitage test for trend.

  • §Fisher's exact test.