Table 2

Characteristics of study participants by CES-D tertile

VariablesMen (n=224)Women (n=345)
0–3 (n=65)4–10 (n=85)11+ (n=74)p Trend0–5 (n=123)6–12 (n=107)13+ (n=115)p Trend
Age, year69.7±5.873.0±6.275.2±7.1<0.00170.8±8.371.1±7.473.1±8.50.031
Body mass index, kg/m224.0±3.924.0±3.123.1±3.40.12424.2±3.324.4±3.324.0±3.50.685
Systolic BP, mm Hg133.1±20.1130.1±18.7136.2±20.40.358137.9±22.1132.6±17.6134.4±19.90.178
Diastolic BP, mm Hg75.2±11.172.0±9.472.7±10.20.15672.6±9.971.8±9.170.0±9.90.038
Total cholesterol, mg/dL179.7±38.3176.1±30.7163.9±30.10.005191.1±35.6189.7±33.3192.3±34.30.798
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL50.4±13.051.2±11.751.6±16.10.60351.3±12.050.8±11.752.5±12.90.467
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL95.7±29.095.9±29.486.3±26.50.059107.2±30.9107.4±30.4109.7±30.80.539
Triglycerides, mg/dL131 [97–187]135 [94–193]120 [89–150]0.009146 [106–201]141 [107–188]142 [99–193]0.418
CRP, mg/L0.8 [0.5–1.5]1.3 [0.6–2.2]1.1 [0.5–3.0]0.0380.8 [0.4–1.3]0.7 [0.5–1.3]0.8 [0.4–1.6]0.465
Hypertension34 (52.3)52 (61.2)53 (71.6)0.019*85 (69.1)71 (66.4)74 (64.4)0.436*
Diabetes mellitus14 (21.5)17 (20.0)22 (29.7)0.241*19 (15.5)22 (20.6)28 (24.4)0.086*
Dyslipidaemia26 (40.0)40 (47.1)20 (27.0)0.099*57 (46.3)50 (46.7)50 (43.5)0.662*
Number of comorbidities1.0±1.31.5±1.21.8±1.4<0.0011.8±1.42.2±1.52.5±1.60.001
Current smoker18 (27.7)22 (25.9)24 (32.4)0.146†3 (2.4)1 (0.9)2 (1.7)0.669†
Regular alcohol drinker28 (43.1)36 (42.4)32 (43.2)0.572†6 (4.9)9 (8.4)6 (5.2)0.892†
Sleep duration, h8.2±1.28.5±1.58.5±1.50.2188.5±1.48.4±1.58.7±1.40.391
Education
 Uneducated4 (6.2)8 (9.4)13 (17.8)<0.001†45 (36.6)48 (45.3)49 (43.8)0.054†
 Elementary school24 (36.9)39 (45.9)34 (46.6)54 (43.9)40 (37.7)49 (43.8)
 Middle school17 (26.2)16 (18.8)19 (26.0)9 (7.3)13 (12.3)9 (8.0)
 High school or higher20 (30.8)22 (25.9)7 (9.6)15 (12.2)5 (4.7)5 (4.5)
No spouse (divorced, widowed and unmarried)0 (0.0)4 (4.7)12 (16.2)<0.001*42 (34.2)34 (31.8)46 (40.0)0.354*
  • Data are expressed as means±SD, medians [IQR] or numbers (%).

  • The p for trend was derived from a general linear model using contrast coefficients, the Cochran-Armitage trend test* or the Mantel-Haenszel test†.

  • BP, blood pressure; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression; CRP, C reactive protein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.