Table 3

Correlation: private sector Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine coverage and state-specific socioeconomic factors

CorrelatesStatewide Hib vaccine coverage (%)
r (p Value)
Per capita state GDP†0.65 (0.01)*
Urbanisation (%) that is, proportion of population living in urban areas‡0.57 (0.03)*
Schedule caste population (%)‡−0.30 (0.28)
Population living below poverty line (%)§−0.65 (0.01)*
Female literacy rate (%)‡0.38 (0.16)
Birth in private sector heath facilities (%)¶0.72 (0.004)*
Paediatricians per 1000 children††0.66 (0.01)*
Proportion of children who received any vaccine in private health facilities††0.48 (0.08)*
Full vaccination coverage rate (%)¶,‡‡,§§0.60 (0.02)*
Private sector vaccine share in coverage against primary childhood diseases (%)¶¶0.83 (<0.001)*
  • r=Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

  • *statistically significant (p value <0.05).

  • †Unidow Analytic Services 2014.29

  • ‡2011 Census of India.24

  • §GOI Planning Commission 2013.25

  • ¶Unicef CES 2009.27

  • ††Considers state-wise membership of Indian Academy of Pediatrics as proxy for availability of paediatricians.28

  • ‡‡Average of full coverage rates reported by DHS/NFHS 2005–200626 and Unicef CES 2009.27

  • §§Proportion of children who received one dose of BCG and measles, and three doses of DPT and polio vaccines.

  • ¶¶Refers to the percentage of vaccinated children who received a given vaccine (BCG, measles, DPT and oral polio vaccine) in India's private sector market: authors’ unpublished calculations.

  • DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus; DHS/NFHS, Demographic and Health Survey/National Family Health Survey; GOI, Government of India; CES, Coverage Evaluation Survey.