TableĀ 1

Summary information on included studies

AuthorsCountryStudy type and data collection methodParticipantsCancer siteMMAT quality score (%)
Bain et al33UKQualitative interviews95 patients with cancerColorectal100
Beacham et al27USAProspective observational (telephone questionnaire)37 women with benign breast biopsy following self-detected lump, 65 following screening and control group of 76 women without biopsyBreast50
Chapple et al35UKQualitative interviews45 patients with cancerTesticular75
Evans et al38UKQualitative interviews43 patients with cancerGynaecological100
Facione and Dodd36USAQualitative interviews39 patients with cancerBreast50
Facione NC and Facione PA37USAQualitative interviews28 women with possible breast cancer symptomsBreast100
Fitch et al39CanadaQualitative interviews18 patients with cancerGynaecological25
Gascoigne et al40UKQualitative interviews6 patients with cancer (and 5 relatives)Testicular75
Granek and Fergus 46CanadaQualitative interviews14 patients with cancer (and 7 partners)Breast100
Heisey et al21CanadaQualitative interviews14 patients with cancer; 10 GPsBreast50
Janz et al24USAProspective observational (telephone questionnaire)83 women with benign biopsy after self-discovered breast problem (and control group of 393 women with no breast problem)Breast75
Jones et al41AustraliaCross-sectional (telephone questionnaire)3005 participants from the general population with potential breast cancer symptomsBreast50
Salander et al42SwedenQualitative interviews28 patients with cancer and 27 spousesBrain50
Scott et al43UKQualitative interviews57 patients with cancerHead and neck100
Siminoff et al44USAQualitative interviews (and review of medical records)242 patients with cancerColorectal100
Tarling et al47UKProspective observational (mixed-methods: questionnaire and focus groups)55 women with non-cancer diagnosis after urgent referral for postmenopausal bleeding (35 completed questionnaire and 15 completed focus groups)Gynaecological55
Tishelman et al34SwedenQualitative interviews46 patients with cancer (and 29 relatives)Multiple sites50
Tromp et al32NLCase-series (mixed methods: questionnaire, interviews and physician questionnaire)306 patients with cancerHead and neck55
Underwood et al45USAQualitative interviews46 patients with cancerMultiple sites25
  • GP, general practitioner; MMAT, Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool; NL, the Netherlands.