Table 9

Comparison of different indicators of maternal healthcare and human development between groups of states with less and more permissive abortion legislation

VariableLess permissive states (n=18)More permissive states (n=14)Rate ratio*p Value
Clean water† (%)91.985.61.07<0.001‡
Sanitation† (%)91.387.01.05<0.001‡
Total fertility rate2.42.3§0.781¶
Contraceptive use** (%)72.373.30.99<0.001‡
Skilled attendance at birth†† (%)91.490.31.01<0.001‡
Low birth weight†† (%)8.19.60.84<0.001‡
Female literacy‡‡ (%)93.389.31.05<0.001‡
All-abortion hospitalisation ratio††, per 100 live births7.66.11.25<0.001‡
Intimate-partner violence‡‡ (%)11.111.90.93<0.001‡
  • *Z-test rate ratio.

  • †Proportions were weighted using a specific denominator of exposed populations for each state.

  • ‡Z-test p value.

  • §Not applicable.

  • ¶t test p value.

  • **Proportions were weighted using a specific denominator of exposed female populations in ages 15–49 for each state.

  • ††Proportions and ratio were weighted using a specific denominator of observed live births in each state.

  • ‡‡Proportions were weighted using a specific denominator of exposed female populations in ages 15 and above for each state.