Table 4

Crude and adjusted ORs of household sanitation conditions and personal hygiene practices in relation to stunting for children aged 0–23 months who participated in the Hunger and Malnutrition Survey by household access to piped water*

 No access to piped waterHaving access to piped water
NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Place of defecation
 No facility/bush/field20 1251.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)55061.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Any toilet facility32890.66 (0.60 to 0.72)0.85 (0.77 to 0.94)21760.56 (0.49 to 0.64)0.77 (0.66 to 0.91)
Mother's/caregiver's reported practice of washing hands with soap before meal
 No21 3461.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)60011.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Yes21670.74 (0.66 to 0.82)0.89 (0.80 to 0.99)17300.61 (0.53 to 0.70)0.77 (0.66 to 0.90)
Household ownership of durable assets†
 Owning <2 items10 4971.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)27211.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Owning ≥2 items12 8200.75 (0.71 to 0.80)0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)49120.64 (0.57 to 0.73)0.84 (0.74 to 0.96)
Social class
 Other14 1481.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)49181.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Scheduled caste/tribe or other
backward class
93561.34 (1.25 to 1.43)1.23 (1.15 to 1.32)28101.29 (1.15 to 1.46)1.16 (1.02 to 1.32)
Maternal education
 No schooling14 6831.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)36231.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Primary school27080.79 (0.67 to 0.95)0.83 (0.70 to 0.99)8800.96 (0.68 to 1.36)1.02 (0.71 to 1.46)
 Secondary school33740.68 (0.63 to 0.73)0.73 (0.67 to 0.80)13320.65 (0.57 to 0.75)0.72 (0.62 to 0.83)
 >Secondary school24620.41 (0.37 to 0.46)0.49 (0.44 to 0.55)17730.40 (0.34 to 0.47)0.51 (0.43 to 0.61)
Maternal age
 ≥3064871.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model17861.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 <206680.93 (0.76 to 1.13)1820.75 (0.52 to 1.08)
 20–2916 2410.84 (0.78 to 0.90)57150.81 (0.71 to 0.93)
Utilised ICDS's health check-up service for their child
 No17 0101.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model48501.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Yes64000.95 (0.89 to 1.02)27930.85 (0.75 to 0.95)
Birth order
 ≥528591.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model6481.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 1–213 1110.80 (0.72 to 0.88)51900.59 (0.47 to 0.72)
 3–474120.86 (0.77 to 0.96)18420.83 (0.66 to 1.05)
Initiation of breast feeding
 After 1 h13 3511.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)36161.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Within 1 h of birth99200.82 (0.77 to 0.88)0.90 (0.83 to 0.97)40100.71 (0.63 to 0.80)
Fed colostrum
 No79931.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)20541.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Yes15 3500.82 (0.77 to 0.87)0.91 (0.84 to 0.99)55850.69 (0.61 to 0.79)
  • *Missing values for all indicators were less than 3%, except for the household drinking water source (n=3395).

  • †Household durable assets include a television, radio, mobile phone, two-wheeler, tractor and cycle.