Table 3

Crude and adjusted ORs of household water and sanitation conditions and personal hygiene in relation to stunting for children who participated in the Hunger and Malnutrition Survey by age group*

NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Household drinking water source
 Other23 5131.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Piped77310.84 (0.79 to 0.9)
Place of defecation
 No facility/bush/field28 4571.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Any toilet facility60220.62 (0.58 to 0.67)0.84 (0.78 to 0.91)
Mother's/caregiver's practice of washing hands with soap after defecation
 No28 0011.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Yes66380.68 (0.64 to 0.73)0.86 (0.80 to 0.93)
Household ownership of durable assets†
 Owning <2 items14 7551.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Owning ≥2 items19 5600.72 (0.68 to 0.76)0.89 (0.84 to 0.95)
Religion
 Other50461.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Hindu29 5810.92 (0.85 to 0.99)
Social class
 Other21 2411.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Scheduled caste/tribe or other
backward class
13 3861.32 (1.25 to 1.4)1.21 (1.14 to 1.28)
Maternal education
 No schooling20 5661.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Primary school11190.79 (0.68 to 0.91)0.83 (0.71 to 0.96)
 Secondary school79490.65 (0.61 to 0.7)0.72 (0.67 to 0.77)
 >Secondary school45670.40 (0.37 to 0.43)0.49 (0.45 to 0.54)
Maternal age
 ≥3093941.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 <209540.88 (0.75 to 1.03)
 20–2924 2910.82 (0.77 to 0.87)
Utilised ICDS's health check-up services for their child
 No24 3271.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Yes10 0930.90 (0.85±0.95)
Birth order
 ≥541341.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 1–220 1660.74 (0.68 to 0.81)
 3–410 3370.85 (0.77 to 0.93)
Initiation of breast feeding
 After 1 h18 8391.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Within 1 h of birth15 4110.78 (0.74 to 0.82)0.88 (0.82 to 0.93)
Fed colostrum
 No11 0381.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Yes23 3120.77 (0.72 to 0.81)0.89 (0.83 to 0.95)
Complementary feeding practices† (6–23 months)
 Started before 6 months or after 8 months75771.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Started 6–8 months22 2300.98 (0.92 to 1.05)
  • *Missing values for all indicators were less than 3%, except for the household drinking water source (n=3395).

  • †Household durable assets include a television, radio, mobile phone, two-wheeler, tractor and cycle.

  • ICDS, Integrated Child Development Services.