Table 1

Characteristics of children 0–23 months included in the sample

N10 36434 6391282
Child characteristics
 Age, months (mean±SE)11.5±0.0511.7±0.0411.0±0.24
 Male (%)525256
Birth order (%)
Stunted height-for-age z-score, <−2 (%)§415025
Wasted weight-for-height z-score, <−2 (%)§271617
Had diarrhoea at least once in the past week(s) (%)154130
Breast feeding started within 1 h of birth (%)224267
Maternal characteristics
 Age, year (mean±SE)25.0±0.0826.8±0.0423.6±0.12
Education (%)
 No schooling556314
 Primary school151113
 Secondary school271457
 >Secondary school31215
Short stature, <150 cm (%)4137
BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (%)4440
Household characteristics
Family size (%)
Place of defecation
 Improved sanitation facility¶2027
 No toilet facility/bush/field778365
Source of drinking water
 Pipe water92430
 Other improved source**7457
  • *Missing values existed in the NFHS sample, including the following: child diarrhoea (n=5), breast feeding within 1 h of birth (n=82), maternal height (n=27), maternal BMI (n=32).

  • †Missing values existing in the HUNGaMA sample, including the following: wasting (n=2209), breast feeding within 1 h of birth (n=389), maternal age (n=186), maternal education (n=438), household size (n=257), source of drinking water (n=3395).

  • ‡Missing values existing in the CNSM sample, including the following: maternal age (n=10), maternal education (n=10), maternal height (n=12), maternal BMI (n=14).

  • §Estimated by using the 2006 WHO growth reference.

  • ¶Improved sanitation facilities included a flush toilet, piped sewer system, septic tank, flush to pit latrine, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab and composting toilet.

  • **Improved water sources other than piped water included a public tap or standpipe, tube well or borehole, protected dug well, protected spring and rainwater.

  • BMI, body mass index; CNSM, Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra; HUNGaMA, Hunger and Malnutrition Survey; NFHS, National Family Health Survey.