Table 4

The association between added sugar intake during pregnancy and gestational weight gain (g/week) and effect modification of the protein:carbohydrate ratio z-score above and below the median intake of added sugar

Gestational weight gain (g/week)
Crude (meanΔ, 95% CI)p for trend*Adjusted† (meanΔ, 95% CI)p for trend
Added sugar
N=46 262
 Q1 (19±5)‡0 (reference)<0.00010 (reference)<0.0001
 Q2 (31±3)23 (16 to 29)17 (11 to 23)
 Q3 (41±3)29 (22 to 35)23 (16 to 29)
 Q4 (54±5)35 (29 to 41)27 (21 to 33)
 Q5 (89±26)40 (33 to 46)34 (28 to 40)
p for interaction
Protein:carbohydrate ratio z-score (added sugar ≥41 g/day)
N=23 131
<0.0001
 Q1 (−1.3±0.4)0 (reference)0.030 (reference)0.26
 Q2 (−0.5±0.1)−4 (−12 to 4)−5 (−12 to 3)
 Q3 (−0.1±0.1)−7 (−15 to 1)−6 (−15 to 2)
 Q4 (0.4±0.2)−8 (−17 to 1)−7 (−16 to 1)
 Q5 (1.3±0.5)−9 (−19 to 1)−2 (−12 to 8)
Protein:carbohydrate ratio z-score (added sugar <41 g/day)
N=23 131
 Q1 (−1.2±0.3)0 (reference)<0.00010 (reference)0.02
 Q2 (−0.5±0.1)−5 (−17 to 6)−4 (−16 to 7)
 Q3 (−0.1±0.1)−13 (−24 to −1)−10 (−21 to 1)
 Q4 (0.4±0.2)−14 (−25 to −3)−8 (−19 to 2)
 Q5 (1.5±0.8)−21 (−32 to −11)−12 (−22 to −2)
  • *p Value for trend using the quintile median.

  • †Adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, maternal age, parity, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal height, maternal smoking, civil status and total energy intake.

  • ‡Means±SD. Means±SD for added sugar are energy-adjusted.