Table 3

The association between the protein:carbohydrate ratio z-score in mid-pregnancy and gestational weight gain (g/week) stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index

Gestational weight gain (g/week)
Crude (meanΔ, 95% CI)p for trend*Adjusted†(meanΔ, 95% CI)p for trend
Normal weight women (N=31 633)
 Q1 (−1.3±0.4)‡0 (reference)<0.00010 (reference)<0.0001
 Q2 (−0.5±0.1)−8 (−15 to −2)−9 (−15 to −2)
 Q3 (−0.1±0.1)−12 (−18 to −5)−11 (−18 to −4)
 Q4 (0.4±0.2)−17 (−23 to −10)−15 (−22 to −8)
 Q5 (1.4±0.8)−17 (−24 to −10)−15 (−21 to −8)
Overweight women (N=8956)
 Q1 (−1.3±0.4)0 (reference)<0.00010 (reference)0.001
 Q2 (−0.5±0.1)−8 (−25 to 9)−6 (−23 to 11)
 Q3 (−0.1±0.1)−21 (−38 to −4)−19 (−36 to −2)
 Q4 (0.4±0.2)−24 (−41 to −8)−19 (−36 to −3)
 Q5 (1.5±0.7)−34 (−50 to −17)−26 (−43 to −10)
Obese women (N=3667)
 Q1 (−1.3±0.4)0 (reference)0.810 (reference)0.57
 Q2 (−0.5±0.1)17 (−17 to 52)18 (−16 to 53)
 Q3 (−0.0±0.1)11 (−23 to 45)13 (−21 to 47)
 Q4 (0.4±0.2)24 (−10 to 58)25 (−9 to 58)
 Q5 (1.5±0.8)5 (−26 to 37)11 (−21 to 43)
  • *p Value for trend using the quintile median.

  • †Adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, maternal age, parity, maternal height, maternal smoking, civil status and total energy intake.

  • ‡Means±SD.