Table 1

Maternal covariate distributions across quintiles of the P/C ratio in mid-pregnancy, N=46 262

Quintiles of the P/C ratio in pregnancy
12345
Per cent or means (SD)Per cent or means (SD)Per cent or means (SD)Per cent or means (SD)Per cent or means (SD)
P/C ratio0.21±0.020.25±0.010.28±0.010.31±0.010.37±0.04
GWG (g/week)482 (226)477 (215)471 (217)467 (223)458 (239)
Energy (kcal/day)2373 (658)2427 (622)2425 (621)2410 (621)2366 (661)
Protein intake (%E)*13 (2)15 (1)15 (1)16 (2)18 (2)
 Animal protein (%E)7 (1)9 (1)10 (1)11 (1)13 (2)
 Vegetable protein (%E)5 (1)5 (1)5 (1)5 (1)4 (1)
Carbohydrate intake (%E)61 (5)57 (5)55 (5)53 (4)49 (5)
 Sugar (%E)25 (7)21 (6)20 (5)19 (5)19 (5)
 Added sugar (%E)11 (6)9 (4)8 (4)7 (3)6 (3)
 Fibre (g/day)27 (10)28 (9)27 (9)26 (9)22 (9)
Fat intake (%E)28 (6)30 (6)31 (6)32 (6)34 (6)
 Saturated fat (%E)11 (3)12 (3)13 (3)13 (3)14 (4)
 Monounsaturated fat (%E)9 (2)9 (2)10 (2)10 (2)11 (2)
 Polyunsaturated fat (%E)4 (1)5 (1)5 (1)5 (1)5 (1)
Glycaemic Index76.3 (50.2)63.4 (37.5)63.8 (36.2)67.1 (37.4)79.9 (46.8)
Maternal age (years)29.8 (4.2)30.2 (4.1)30.4 (4.1)30.5 (4.2)30.6 (4.3)
Primiparous5653535251
Socioeconomic position
 High-level proficiencies2324242422
 Medium-level proficiencies3133333230
 Skilled2727272829
 Student76555
 Unskilled119101012
 Unemployed21112
Married/cohabitating9898999898
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 ≥18.555444
 18.6–24.97070706964
 25–29.91818192022
 ≥30777810
Smoking in pregnancy
 Non-smoker7577777671
 Occasional smoker1313131314
 Current smoker1210101215
  • *Energy-adjusted protein, means (SD): 75±8; 84±7; 90±7; 96±8 and 105±11 g/day.

  • BMI, body mass index; GWG, gestational weight gain; P/C ratio, protein:carbohydrate ratio.