Table 2

Crude and adjusted ORs of household water and sanitation conditions in relation to stunting for children who participated in the National Family Health Survey for 0–23 months*

NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Household drinking water
 Other90491.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Piped13150.64 (0.53 to 0.76)
Place of defecation
 No facility/bush/field66351.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Any toilet facility37290.53 (0.46 to 0.61)0.84 (0.71 to 0.99)
Wealth index
 Poorest27271.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Poorer26170.78 (0.67 to 0.89)0.86 (0.74 to 0.99)
 Middle23900.66 (0.56 to 0.76)0.83 (0.71 to 0.97)
 Richer17640.46 (0.39 to 0.55)0.71 (0.59 to 0.87)
 Richest8660.26 (0.20 to 0.33)0.52 (0.39 to 0.69)
Social class
 Other29621.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Scheduled caste/tribe or other backward class74021.54 (1.36 to 1.74)1.23 (1.07 to 1.42)
Maternal education
 No schooling49731.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Primary school16310.79 (0.68 to 0.91)0.88 (0.76 to 1.02)
 Secondary school34250.49 (0.43 to 0.55)0.65 (0.56 to 0.74)
 >Secondary school3340.25 (0.17 to 0.37)0.43 (0.29 to 0.65)
Maternal height
 ≥150 cm92761.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 <150 cm10871.70 (1.53 to 1.89)1.59 (1.43±1.78)
Maternal age
 ≥3022561.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 <2010870.89 (0.73 to 1.07)0.93 (0.76 to 1.14)
 20–2970200.74 (0.65 to 0.85)0.85 (0.74 to 0.98)
Frequency of ANC visit during pregnancy
 Less than 3 times53951.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 ≥3 times48690.67 (0.60 to 0.75)
Maternal dietary intake
 Consumed <4 food groups a week‡63621.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Consumed ≥4 food groups a week‡39800.79 (0.70 to 0.88)
Birth order
 ≥518221.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 1–256150.66 (0.57 to 0.76)
 3–429260.79 (0.68 to 0.92)
Initiation of breast feeding
 After 1 h70251.0 (Reference)Not retained in the final model
 Within 1 h of birth32390.90 (0.80 to 1.01)
Complementary feeding practices
 Not fed a minimum number of times and the appropriate number of the food group†73131.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Fed a minimum number of times and the appropriate number of the food group30501.16 (1.00 to 1.35)1.50 (1.28 to 1.76)
  • *Missing values for all indicators were less than 3%.

  • †Appropriate number of food groups including three or more food groups for breastfed children and four or more food groups for non-breastfed children; the minimum number of times is defined as at least twice a day for breastfed infants 6–8 months old and at least three times a day for breastfed children 9–23 months old.

  • ‡Food groups include milk and curd, pulse or beans, dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, eggs, fish, chicken or meat.

  • ANC, antenatal care.